Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

SelectField
Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
(L-)Arginine N.I. Plasma = 126 N.I. Lopansri et al., 2006, Infect Immun
(L-)Arginine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) < HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
(L-)Arginine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 147 SM < HC Yeo et al., 2007, J Exp Med
(L-)Arginine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. 97 levels ↑ during treatment; + correlation with improvement of endothelial function (RH-PAT index) within 48h; baseline LDH was associated with a more rapid ↑ in plasma L-arginine concentrations; baseline plasma arginase activity was associated with a slower recovery of plasma L-arginine Yeo et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
(L-)Arginine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 146 N.I. Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
(L-)Arginine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 75 Hypoargininaemia is associated with death from CM Lopansri et al., 2003, Lancet
2,3-bisphospho-glycerate (BPG) Plasmodium falciparum Blood 77 SM = HC (recoverd from UM) Sasi et al., 2007, Am J Trop Med Hyg
3-hydroxy-butyrate (3-OHB) N.I. Blood 186 SM = NM Kawo et al., 1990, Lancet
3-hydroxy-butyrate (3-OHB) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 71 SM > HC (recoverd from UM) Sasi et al., 2007, Am J Trop Med Hyg
5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid (5-HIAA) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 121-175 CMseq = CMnseq Dobbie et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
a1-antitrypsin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 32 SM = HC Clemens et al., 1994, Br J Haematol
a1-antitrypsin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 566 UM hospitalized = UM not-hospitalized; - correlation with Hb O'Donnell et al., 2009, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
a2-macroglobulin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 52 N.I. Pukrittayakamee et al., 1989, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
a2-macroglobulin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 32 SM = HC Clemens et al., 1994, Br J Haematol
Acetylhydrolase (AH) activity (PAF → lyso-PAF) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 35 SM = HC, but below normal levels in 40% of SM patients Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Acetylhydrolase (AH) activity (PAF → lyso-PAF) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 28 P. falciparum = P. vivax; + correlation with serum total and LDL cholesterol Davis et al., 1993, J Infect
Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = = = 176 CM = HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
Activated protein C (aPC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = = 176 CM > HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
ADAMTS13 (activity) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 58 CM, NCSM < HC (both Ag level as activity); mixing of normal plasma and plasma from malaria patients inhibited activity; activity did not improve much 72h after start treatment Larkin et al., 2009 PLoS Pathog
ADAMTS13 (activity) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 56 SM < HC; weak + correlation with hemoglobin concentration in the SM group; - correlation with disease severity Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
ADAMTS13 (activity) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 53 P. falciparum (UM + 3SM) = P. vivax < HC for Ag conc and activity; malaria > thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; P. falciparum patients had ultra-large (UL)-vWF in plasma; no ↑ titers of ADAMTS13 autoantibodies De Mast et al., 2009, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 46 CSF:serum ADA ratio was significantly ↓ in CM patients compared to NM (NCNS + CNS) patients; probability of 100% of having CM if CSF:serum ADA levels are below cut-off value (0.385) Jakka et al., 2006, Cerebrospinal Fluid Res
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 46 CM > NM (NM patients with viral encephalitis = NM patients without) Jakka et al., 2006, Cerebrospinal Fluid Res
Adiponectin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 25 + correlation with glucose production, cortisol and gluconeogenesis Blümer et al., 2005, Metabolism
Alanine N.I. Blood 186 SM > NM Kawo et al., 1990, Lancet
Alanine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Alanine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 13 CM = HC Van Thien et al., 2001, QJM
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) N.I. N.I. 186 SM = NM Kawo et al., 1990, Lancet
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 56 N.I. Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
Albumin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
Albumin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 N.I. Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
Albumin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 565 UM hospitalized = UM not-hospitalized; + correlation with Hb, blantyre coma score and glucose O'Donnell et al., 2009, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Albumin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 35 SM < HC Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Albumin Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM < HC Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 56 N.I. Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
ANG1 Plasmodium falciparum Blood 193 Good discrimination between CM and SM and between CM/SM and UM (ROC curve analysis); ANG1 was a better discriminator between UM and SM compared to ANG2 or the ANG2:ANG1 ratio; - correlation with ANG2 and parasitemia; + correlation with renal dysfunction and coma Conroy et al., 2009, Malar J
ANG1 Plasmodium falciparum Platelet-poor plasma 52 Malaria (SM + UM) > HC; levels increased upon start of antimalarial treatment; + correlation with plasma VEGF, sP-selectin, and CXCL7 (NAP-2) Brouwers et al., 2012, PLoS One
ANG1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 60 Good discrimination between CM and UM patients (ROC curve analysis) Lovegrove et al., 2009, PLoS One
ANG1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum < 164 Good discrimination between CM and UM patients (ROC curve analysis); ↓ANG1 predicted mortality Lovegrove et al., 2009, PLoS One
ANG2 Plasmodium falciparum Blood = 193 Good discrimination between CM/SM and UM (ROC curve analysis); ANG2 was a better discriminator between UM and CM compared to ANG1 or the ANG2:ANG1 ratio; - correlation with ANG1; + correlation with parasitemia, and cumulative organ injury Conroy et al., 2009, Malar J
ANG2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 146 ANG2 ↑ with ↑ disease severity and is associated with ↑ risk of death; + correlation with lactate, creatinine, sICAM-1, HRP2, sE-selectin and TNF-a (SM) Yeo et al., 2008, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
ANG2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 146 + correlation with ADMA Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
ANG2 Plasmodium falciparum Platelet-poor plasma 52 Malaria (SM + UM) > HC; levels decreased upon start of antimalarial treatment Brouwers et al., 2012, PLoS One
ANG2 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 60 Moderate discrimination between CM and UM patients (ROC curve analysis) Lovegrove et al., 2009, PLoS One
ANG2 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 164 Moderate discrimination between CM and UM patients (ROC curve analysis) Lovegrove et al., 2009, PLoS One
ANG2:ANG1 Plasmodium falciparum Blood = 193 Good discrimination between CM/SM and UM (ROC curve analysis); ANG2:ANG1 was a better discriminator between UM and CM/SM compared to ANG1 or ANG2; + correlation with cumulative organ injury Conroy et al., 2009, Malar J
ANG2:ANG1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 60 Good discrimination between CM and UM patients (ROC curve analysis) Lovegrove et al., 2009, PLoS One
ANG2:ANG1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 164 Good discrimination between CM and UM patients (ROC curve analysis) Lovegrove et al., 2009, PLoS One
Angiostatin Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM) = 13 Undetectable Deininger et al., 2003, J Neuroimmunol
Anti-a-galactosyl IgG Plasmodium falciparum Serum 110 CM = non-endemic HC < endemic HC = UM Ravindran et al., 1988, Immunol Lett
Anti-dsDNA Ab Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 125 Proportion of anti-dsDNA Ab+ patients: SM (P. falciparum) > UM (P. falciparum) = HC; P. vivax > HC Jhaveri et al., 1997, Natl Med J India
Anti-dsDNA IgG N.I. Serum 99 Malaria > HC; IgG1 > IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 Zouali et al., 1986, Clin Exp Immunol
Anti-nuclear Ab (ANA) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 39 N.I. Baker et al., 2008, Malar J
Anti-nuclear Ab (ANA) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale Serum 301 Incidence in Ghanians: UM = HC = nephritic syndrome and tropical splenomegaly syndrome > HC; incidence in Caucasians: UM > HC Adu et al., 1982, Clin Exp Immunol
Anti-ribonucleo-protein (RNP) IgG N.I. Serum 99 Malaria > HC; IgG1, IgG2 > IgG3, IgG4 Zouali et al., 1986, Clin Exp Immunol
Anti-rosetting activity Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 81 N.I. Carlson et al., 1990, Lancet
Anti-ssDNA Ab Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 125 Proportion of anti-ssDNA Ab+ patients: SM (P. falciparum) = UM (P. falciparum) = P. vivax > HC Jhaveri et al., 1997, Natl Med J India
Anti-ssDNA Ab Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale Serum 301 HC Ghana > HC Caucasians; Ghana: UM = HC = tropical splenomegaly syndrome; nephritic syndrome > HC; Caucasians: UM > HC Adu et al., 1982, Clin Exp Immunol
Anti-ssDNA IgG N.I. Serum 99 Malaria > HC; similar distribution between IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 Zouali et al., 1986, Clin Exp Immunol
Antithrombin-III (AT-III) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 52 + correlation with AT-III activity and platelet count; - correlation with parasitemia Pukrittayakamee et al., 1989, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Antithrombin-III (AT-III) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 32 SM < HC on the second day after admission Clemens et al., 1994, Br J Haematol
Antithrombin-III (AT-III) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 38 Levels ↑ during treatment Vogetseder et al., 2004, Trop Med Int Health
Apo A Plasmodium falciparum Serum 74 N.I. Djoumessi et al., 1989, Pathol Biol (Paris)
Apo B Plasmodium falciparum Serum 74 N.I. Djoumessi et al., 1989, Pathol Biol (Paris)
Arginase Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 147 Arginase activity ↑ with disease severity Yeo et al., 2007, J Exp Med
Arginase Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 97 Plasma arginase activity: SM > UM (moderately SM); baseline plasma arginase activity was associated with a slower recovery of plasma L-arginine Yeo et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
Arginase Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 146 N.I. Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
Ascorbate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Malaria (UM + CM) < HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Ascorbic acid Plasmodium falciparum Serum 194 Pediatric patients: UM < HC; Adult patients: UM > HC; pediatric HC > adult HC Hassan et al., 2004, Braz J Infect Dis
Asparagine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 56 N.I. Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM > HC Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Assymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 146 SM > HC; levels did not ↓ with anti-malarial treatment; - correlation with NOExhaled and RH-PAT; + correlation with Ang2, ICAM-1, creatinine, total bilirubin, HRP2 and lactate; good predictor of a fatal outcome (ROC-analysis) Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
b-amyloid precursor protein (b-APP) (axons) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 68 b-APP staining was higher in pons and internal capsule of CM patients compared to NCSM patients; + correlation with CSF protein, plasma lactate and time to death; - correlation with Glasgow coma score Medana et al., 2002, Am J Pathol
b2-glycoprotein 1 (Apo H) Plasmodium falciparum Serum < 167 CM† < UM; CM < NM; levels were only higher in severe NM patients, not in mild NM patients; + correlation with coma score Jakobsen et al., 1994, Infect Immun
Bicarbonate N.I. Plasma < 50 N.I. Oguche et al., 2002, West Afr J Med
Bicarbonate Plasmodium falciparum Serum 56 N.I. Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
Bicyclo-PGE2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Malaria (NCSM + UM) < HC (patients in the convalescent phase of malaria) Awandare et al., 2006, Clin Immunol
Bicyclo-PGE2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 129 - correlation between PBMC COX-2 protein / mRNA expression and disease severity; - correlation with plasma IL-10 Perkins et al., 2001, J Infect Dis
Bicyclo-PGE2/ creatinine Plasmodium falciparum Urine 90 CM < AM > HC; CM = HC; CM† + CMseq < NCSM; + correlation with plasma IL-10 Perkins et al., 2005, J Infect Dis
Big endothelin-1 (bET1) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 54 SM > NM, HC; plasma concentrations remained elevated during first 7 days post treatment (sustained endothelial cell damage ??); + correlation with plasma TNF-a; - correlation with platelet count; no difference between patients with and without renal failure Wenisch et al., 1996, J Infect Dis
Bilirubin N.I. Serum 186 SM > NM Kawo et al., 1990, Lancet
Bilirubin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 127 + correlation with ADMA and SDMA Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
Bilirubin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
Bilirubin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 + correlation with strong ion gap (representing unmeasured anions) Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
Bilirubin Plasmodium falciparum Serum 56 N.I. Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
Bilirubin Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM > HC Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Bilirubin Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum 28 P. falciparum > P. vivax = HC Davis et al., 1993, J Infect
Bilirubin (Bb) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 47 SM > HC; ↑ in patients with renal impairment; - correlation with platelet counts; + correlation with SC5b-9, TNF-a and IL-6 Wenisch et al., 1997, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
Biopterin Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 128 + correlation with neopterin and coma Weiss et al., 1998, J Infect Dis
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Plasmodium falciparum Blood 56 N.I. Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
C-peptide N.I. Serum 186 SM > NM Kawo et al., 1990, Lancet
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 114 SM < HC; after 24h plasma levels of UM patients were lower than plasma levels from HC patients Dietmann et al., 2008, Malar J
C1q Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 283 N.I. Phanuphak et al., 1985, Clin Exp Immunol
C1q Plasmodium falciparum Serum/Plasma = 89 N.I. Greenwood et al., 1974, Clin Exp Immunol
C3 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 47 SM < HC; - correlation with SC5b-9; + correlation with C4d and iC3b Wenisch et al., 1997, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
C3 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 283 Levels returned to normal 4 weeks after infection Phanuphak et al., 1985, Clin Exp Immunol
C3 Plasmodium falciparum Serum/Plasma = 89 - correlation with serum FDP levels Greenwood et al., 1974, Clin Exp Immunol
C3 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = = 125 P. falciparum = P. vivax = HC Jhaveri et al., 1997, Natl Med J India
C4 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 47 SM = HC; + correlation with C4d Wenisch et al., 1997, Clin Immunol Immunopathol

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