Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

SelectField
Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
sLaminin Plasmodium falciparum Serum 71 Levels returned to normal 3 days posttreatment; + correlation with parasitemia, sTNFR1, sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 Wenisch et al., 1994, J Clin Pathol
sLaminin Plasmodium falciparum Serum 20 SM > HC; serum levels decreased slowly during treatment; SM > UM (compared with data from Wenish et al. 1994 J Clin Pathol. 47:787-789) Burgmann et al., 1996, J Clin Immunol
Sodium Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 306 CM + RD, CM, RD > hyperparasitemia/prostration English et al., 1997, QJM
Sodium Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 N.I. Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
sP-selectin (sCD62P) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = = = 253 N.I. Hollestelle et al., 2006, Br J Haematol
sP-selectin (sCD62P) Plasmodium falciparum Platelet-poor plasma 52 Malaria (SM + UM) > HC; levels increased upon start of antimalarial treatment; + correlation with ANG1 and VEGF Brouwers et al., 2012, PLoS One
sThrombomodulin (sTM) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 33 CM > NM Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
sThrombomodulin (sTM) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 CM > HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
sThrombomodulin (sTM) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 555 Before episode < during episode > after episode; + correlation with uric acid in UM Mita-Mendoza et al., 2013, PLoS One
sTissue factor (sTF) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 555 Before episode > during episode = after episode Mita-Mendoza et al., 2013, PLoS One
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 133 N.I. Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 41 + correlation with age and parasitemia; 3 days after treatment: levels ↓ in recovery group with SM† > SM Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 CM, RF > NCSM > HC; plasma levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with TNF-a and IL-6 Wenisch et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 160 + correlation with parasitemia, glucose, bilirubin, lactate, urea and creatinine; - correlation with hemoglobin Deloron et al., 1994, Eur Cytokine Netw
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 152 UM > AM Jakobsen et al., 1994, Infect Immun
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 54 Serum TNFR1 ↓ during treatment; - correlation with TGF-b; + correlation with TNF-a Wenisch et al., 1995, J Clin Immun
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 54 Levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with parasitemia, sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 Wenisch et al., 1994, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 79 CMseq = CMnseq; + correlation with sTNF-R2 and TNF-a Molyneux et al., 1993, Cytokine
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 49 NM, malaria > HC; levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with sTNF-RII; - correlation with factor II+VII+X Bygbjerg et al., 1997, APMIS
sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 50 + correlation with neopterin, fever and coma duration before admission Weiss et al., 1998, J Infect Dis
sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 160 + correlation with parasitemia, glucose, bilirubin, lactate, urea and creatinine; - correlation with hemoglobin Deloron et al., 1994, Eur Cytokine Netw
sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 133 N.I. Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 41 + correlation with parasitemia; 3 days after treatment: levels ↓ in both groups Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 79 CMseq = CMnseq; + correlation with sTNF-R1 and TNF-a Molyneux et al., 1993, Cytokine
sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 48 NM, malaria > HC; levels ↓ slowly during treatment; + correlation with sTNF-RI Bygbjerg et al., 1997, APMIS
sTNF-R2: PDGFbb Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 133 CM† > UM; CM† > HC Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
sTNF-R2:VEGF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 133 CM† > UM; CM† > HC Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
sTransferrin receptor (sTfR) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 179 Burté et al., 2013, Blood
suPAR N.I. Plasma 645 SM > NM > HC; plasma levels were ↑ for patients with respiratory distress (SM + NM), hypoglycemia (SM + NM), coma (SM); plasma levels were ↓ in SM patients with a sickling phenotytpe and there was no difference between SM patients with or without severe anemia; + correlation with temperature on admission, parasitemia, liver size, neutrophil count, platelet distribution width (PDW) and WBC count; - correlation with duration of symptoms before admission, platelet count, red cell distribution width and blood glucose; an ↑ of 1ng/mL suPAR, ↓ blood glucose, respiratory distress, coma and ↑ WBC count predicted ↑ risk of mortality; plasma suPAR ↑ with disease severity, shorter duration of symptoms before admission, ↑ parasitemia, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, anemia and hypoglycemia Ostrowski et al., 2005, J Infect Dis
suPAR Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 87 Malaria(↑parasitemia) > Malaria (↓parasitemia) = NM; levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with parasitemia Perch et al., 2004, Parasite Immunol
sVCAM-1 (sCD106) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 38 N.I. Vogetseder et al., 2004, Trop Med Int Health
sVCAM-1 (sCD106) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 86 SM > HC; SM > sepsis; sepsis < UM; + correlation with VCAM-1 staining (IHC) on dermal microvasculature Turner et al., 1998, Am J Pathol
sVCAM-1 (sCD106) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 212 + correlation with TNF-a Tchinda et al., 2007, Acta Trop
sVCAM-1 (sCD106) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 61 SM > NM; + correlation with parasitemia, sE-selectin and borderline correlation with sICAM-1 Jakobsen et al., 1994, Immunology
sVCAM-1 (sCD106) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 41 N.I. Elhassan et al., 1994, Am J Trop Med Hyg
sVCAM-1 (sCD106) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 555 before episode < during episode > after episode Mita-Mendoza et al., 2013, PLoS One
sVCAM-1 (sCD106) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 71 ↓ upon treatment but remained > normal levels Wenisch et al., 1994, J Infect Dis
sVCAM-1 (sCD106) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum = 42 UM P.falciparum = UM P.vivax; + correlation with sE-selectin and borderline correlation with sICAM-1 Jakobsen et al., 1994, Immunology
sVEGFR1 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = = 114 P. falciparum = P. vivax Furuta et al., 2010, Am J Trop Med Hyg
sVEGFR2 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 114 P. falciparum = P. vivax > NM = HC; no difference between races; levels returned to normal after treatment Furuta et al., 2010, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 146 N.I. Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
Tau (axons) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 138 Malaria = NM; in the malaria group tau levels significantly ↑ with ↓ consciousness; - correlation with levels of consciousness; + correlation with severe anemia, respiratory rate, deep breathing and parasitemia; ↓in hypoglycemic patients Medana et al., 2007, J Neurol Sci
Tau (axons) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 36 SM > NM-NCNS; + correlation with duration of coma (independent of renal failure), plasma creatinin levels, urea nitrogen levels and sGOT/AST Medana et al., 2005, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Taurine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 121-175 CMseq = CMnseq Dobbie et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
TGF-b mRNA Plasmodium falciparum Blood = n.s. 88 SM > HC Lourembam et al., 2013, Cytokine
TGF-b1 N.I. Brain (PM)-IHC = = 14 No colocalisation with astrocytes; TGF-b protein expression in tissue surrounding larger brain vessels; no staining in spleens from CM patients; + correlation with IL-1b and TNF-a mRNA expression Brown et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 21 Staining in CM patients was as intense as in 1 NM patient with bacterial meningitis; intra- and perivascular staining; staining in cerebellum > staining in cerebrum and brainstem Armah et al., 2005, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 15 In astrocytes that form the BBB around capillaries with Hz and/or pRBC sequestration Deininger et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum CSF 71 N.I. Brown et al., 2000, Neurology
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 59 - correlation with TNF-a and parasitemia Perkins et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Malaria (NCSM + UM) < HC (patients in the convalescent phase of malaria) Awandare et al., 2006, Clin Immunol
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 97 UM = endemic HC > non-endemic HC Prakash et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 122 CM Thai patients < CM Tanzanian patients; CM, SM, pregnancy malaria < HC Chaiyaroj et al., 2004, Acta Trop
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 145 - correlation with IL-12 and IL-18 Musumeci et al., 2003, Cytokine
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 33 CM = NCSM + UM Esamai et al., 2003, J Trop Pediatr
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 54 Serum TGF-b ↑ during treatment; - correlation with TNF-a and sTNFR1 Wenisch et al., 1995, J Clin Immun
TGF-b1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
TGF-b1:IL-12 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 34 N.I. Perkins et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
TGF-b1:TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 34 N.I. Perkins et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
TGF-b2 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 15 In MF/microglial cells that accumulate in Dürck’s granulomas and in glioses or ring hemorrhages Deininger et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
TGF-b3 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 15 In EC and smooth muscle cells of the brain vasculature with Hz and/or pRBC sequestration Deininger et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
Threonine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 52 Plasma levels returned to normal as the AT-III plasma levels ↑ Pukrittayakamee et al., 1989, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 32 SM > HC Clemens et al., 1994, Br J Haematol
Thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 45 + correlation with parasitemia Holst et al., 1999, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 37 + correlation with thrombomodulin Hemmer et al., 1994, Thromb Haemost
Thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 54 Levels returned to normal during treatment; + correlation with parasitemia, TNF-a and partial thromboplastin time; - correlation with protein C antigen and activity, protein C inhibitor-1, prothrombine time, fibrinogen and platelet count Hemmer et al., 1991, Am J Med
Thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. = = 176 CM > HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
Thrombomodulin (TM) Plasmodium falciparum Endothelial cells (subcutaneous fat tissue) 37 CM < HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
Thrombomodulin (TM) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 37 Hemmer et al., 1994, Thromb Haemost
Thrombopoietin (TPO) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 79 RF, RF + CM > CM > NCSM (no RF) = UM; levels normalized upon treatment; - correlation with platelet counts Kreil et al., 2000, Br J Haematol
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM) 13 TSP-1 staining of macrophages in Dürck's granulomas, absent if no Dürck's granulomas are present Deininger et al., 2003, J Neuroimmunol
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 18 No staining in brains from patients who died from NM causes Ockenhouse et al., 1992, J Exp Med
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 18 Increased in lungs from CM cases Turner et al., 1994, Am J Pathol
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 58 SM (CM + NCSM) = HC (indicated as data not shown) Larkin et al., 2009 PLoS Pathog
TIMP-1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 128 SM > NM; NM = HC; + correlation with MOD score and MMP-8; - correlation with coma score Dietmann et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
TIMP-2 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = = 128 NM < HC > SM Dietmann et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
Tissue factor (TF) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 22 UM: parasitemic controls who died from other causes Francischetti et al., 2007, J Thromb Haemost
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 100 P. falciparum = P. vivax; tPA activity: SM = UM < HC Mohanty et al., 1997, Am J Hematol
TLR2 Plasmodium falciparum PBMC 27 TLR2 expression on mDC + CD14+Mo: SM = UM > HC; %TLR2+CD14+Mo + TLR2+ mDC: SM = UM < HC Loharungsikul et al., 2008, Acta Trop
TLR4 Plasmodium falciparum PBMC 27 TLR4 expression on mDC + CD14+Mo: SM = UM = HC Loharungsikul et al., 2008, Acta Trop
TLR9 Plasmodium falciparum PBMC 27 TLR9 expression on pDC: SM = UM < HC; TLR9 expression on B cells: SM = UM = HC Loharungsikul et al., 2008, Acta Trop
TNF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 145 SM = febrile UM > UM; + correlation with body temperature Perera et al., 2013, Pathog Glob Health
TNF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 158 CM > HC; NCSM > HC; MOD > NCSM, UM, HC; partial normalisation at patient discharge; - correlation with parasite density, erythrocyte count, platelet count; + correlation with microparticles from endothelial, erythrocytic and platelet origin Sahu et al., 2013, Human Immunol
TNF Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 179 CM = NM; SM/NCSM > NM; + correlation with serum IL-1b, IL-10, IL-6 and GM-CSF in all patient groups (UM, CM, and SMA) Burté et al., 2013, Blood
TNF Plasmodium vivax Plasma 99 HC were the same patients 3 weeks after treatment; nontransmitters = transmitters Abeles et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
TNF Plasmodium vivax Serum = 41 + correlation with platelet phagocytosis index (by THP-1 cells) Coelho et al., 2013, PLoS One
TNF mRNA Plasmodium falciparum Blood = = = 88 SM = HC Lourembam et al., 2013, Cytokine
TNF-a N.I. Brain (PM)-IHC = 14 TNF-a mRNA present in all CM cases, no TNF-a mRNA in NM-CNS, and in only 1 NM-NCNS case whereas TNF-a protein staining was found in all CM and NM-CNS brains but not in NM-NCNS brains; expressed by splenic MF from CM patients; + correlation with TGF-b and IL-1b Brown et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 21 Parenchymal, intra- and perivascular staining; no TNF-a staining in SMA or NM (except bacterial meningitis) ; staining in cerebellum > staining in cerebrum and brainstem Armah et al., 2005, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum CSF 84 CM patients: CSF < Serum; CSF levels associated with neurological sequelae after recovering from CM John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum CSF = = 71 Only significantly increased in the tubercular meningitis group Brown et al., 2000, Neurology

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