Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

SelectField
Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
IgM against total brain protein extract Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 98 Malaria (CM + SM + UM) > HC Bansal et al., 2009, PLoS One
IL-1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 Not detectable in UM or HC Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 84 CM patients: CSF < Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 77 NCSM patients are patients with SMA Kurtzhals et al., 1998, Lancet
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 200 + correlation with TNF-a, IFN-g, parasitemia and pigment-containing neutrophils Luty et al., 2000, Infect Immun
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 111 N.I. Hermsen et al., 2003, Clin Exp Immunol
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 59 + correlation with parasitemia and TNF-a; - correlation with TGF-b1 Perkins et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 136 N.I. Peyron et al., 1994, Clin Exp Immunol
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 123 SM > HC Guiyedi et al., 2007, PLoS One
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 143 hyperparasitemia/prostration > RD, CM; + correlation with plasma IL-6 English et al., 1997, QJM
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 135 CM, NCSM > HC; + correlation with plasma total IgE (UM); - correlation with plasma total IgE (AM) Duarte et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Malaria (NCSM + UM) > HC (patients in the convalescent phase of malaria) Awandare et al., 2006, Clin Immunol
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 129 NCSM > HC; - correlation with plasma bicyclo-PGE2 Perkins et al., 2001, J Infect Dis
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 98 NCSM, UM > endemic HC > non-endemic HC; + correlation with plasma total IgE Duarte et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 145 SM > febrile UM = UM; + correlation with body temperature Perera et al., 2013, Pathog Glob Health
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 41 + correlation with parasitemia; 3 days after treatment: levels ↓ in both groups Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 38 Levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with TNF-a, IL-1b and IL-6 Vogetseder et al., 2004, Trop Med Int Health
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma >* = 48 N.I. Deloron et al., 1994, Clin Infect Dis
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = n.s. 86 N.I. Baptista et al., 1997, Trop Med Int Health
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 133 N.I. Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 97 endemic HC ≥ non-endemic HC Prakash et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 138 AM = HC Anstey et al., 1996, J Exp Med
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma <* 287 cerebral symptoms < cerebral symptoms + coma + MOD; + correlation with IL-6, venous lactate, standard base deficit, respiratory rate and parasite count; high levels associated with hyperparasitemia, jaundice and hemodynamic shock Day et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 748 N.I. Lyke et al., 2004, Infect Immun
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 217 - correlation with platelet count John et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 179 CM > NM; SM/NCSM > NM; + correlation with serum TNF and GM-CSF in all patient groups (UM, CM, and SMA) and with IL-1b and IL-6 in UM and SMA patients (but not in CM patients) Burté et al., 2013, Blood
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 54 + correlation with IFN-g Wenisch et al., 1995, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum (1 Plasmodium vivax) Brain (PM)-IHC 7 CM(falciparum) > SM(vivax) Maneerat et al., 1999, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health
IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 255 UM vivax = UM falciparum; UM vivax > HC; non-anemic patients: P. vivax > P. falciparum; P. vivax: anemic patients = non-anemic patients; patients without parasite-specific IgM < patients with parasite-specific IgM; patients without parasite-specific IgG > patients with parasite-specific IgG; P. falciparum: anemic patients > non-anemic patients; patients without parasite-specific IgM, IgG = patients with parasite-specific IgM, IgG Fernandes et al., 2006, Clin Vaccine Immunol
IL-10 Plasmodium vivax Plasma 99 HC were the same patients 3 weeks after treatment; nontransmitters > transmitters Abeles et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-10 Plasmodium vivax Serum 41 Thrombocytopenic patients > non-thrombocytopenic patients; - correlation with platelet counts Coelho et al., 2013, PLoS One
IL-10 mRNA Plasmodium falciparum Blood = 88 SM < HC,NM Lourembam et al., 2013, Cytokine
IL-10:IL-12 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 34 N.I. Perkins et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
IL-10:TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 34 N.I. Perkins et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
IL-10:TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 133 N.I. Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
IL-12 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. 59 - correlation with parasitemia Perkins et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
IL-12 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Malaria (NCSM + UM) = HC (patients in the convalescent phase of malaria); + correlation with MIF Awandare et al., 2006, Clin Immunol
IL-12 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 97 SM > HC; endemic HC > non-endemic HC Prakash et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IL-12 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 145 SM > HC; + correlation with IL-18; - correlation with TGF-b Musumeci et al., 2003, Cytokine
IL-12 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 255 UM vivax = UM falciparum = HC; P. vivax: anemic patients = non-anemic patients; + correlation with parasitemia; P. falciparum: anemic patients > non-anemic patients; + correlation with IgG against components of the RBC membrane; P. vivax and P. falciparum: patients without parasite-specific IgM, IgG = patients with parasite-specific IgM, IgG Fernandes et al., 2006, Clin Vaccine Immunol
IL-12a mRNA Plasmodium falciparum Blood n.s. n.s. 88 SM = HC = NM Lourembam et al., 2013, Cytokine
IL-12p40 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-12p40 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 111 N.I. Hermsen et al., 2003, Clin Exp Immunol
IL-12p40/p70 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 200 NCSM < HC; - correlation with parasitemia, pigment-containing neutrophils, IL-10 and TNF-a; + correlation with IFN-g Luty et al., 2000, Infect Immun
IL-12p70 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 111 SM > HC Hermsen et al., 2003, Clin Exp Immunol
IL-12p70 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 94 SM, pregnancy malaria, CM(Thailand) < HC Chaiyaroj et al., 2004, Acta Trop
IL-12p70 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = = 748 SM > HC Lyke et al., 2004, Infect Immun
IL-12p70 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-13 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-13 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 387 SM patients all have SMA; -7402T/-4729A haplotype is higher in SMA and is associated with increased susceptibility to SMA Okeyo et al., 2013, BMC Immunol
IL-13 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-15 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-15 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-17 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-17 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-18 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 29 - correlation with parasitemia Perkmann et al., 2005, Cytokine
IL-18 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 94 SM = HC (only CM data from Thailand) Chaiyaroj et al., 2004, Acta Trop
IL-18 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 145 SM > HC; + correlation with IL-12; - correlation with TGF-b Musumeci et al., 2003, Cytokine
IL-18 mRNA Plasmodium falciparum Blood = n.s. 88 SM = HC Lourembam et al., 2013, Cytokine
IL-1a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 466 + correlation with TNF-a Kwiatkowski et al., 1990, Lancet
IL-1a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 115 concentrations between 4h and 24h were not predictors of outcome as the levels fluctuated considerably; + correlation with admission venous lactate concentrations and blood TNF-a Krishna et al., 1994, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
IL-1b N.I. Brain (PM)-IHC 14 No IL-1b mRNA or protein staining in NM patients; IL-1b protein staining was observed in infiltrating monocytes from NM-CNS patients; + correlation with TGF-b and TNF-a mRNA expression Brown et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 21 Parenchymal, intra- and perivascular staining; no IL-1b staining in SMA or NM-NCNS; staining in cerebellum > staining in cerebrum and brainstem Armah et al., 2005, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 84 CM patients: CSF < Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 38 + correlation with IL-10; - correlation with protein C Vogetseder et al., 2004, Trop Med Int Health
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 97 endemic HC > non-endemic HC Prakash et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 179 CM = NM; SM/NCSM > NM; + correlation with serum IL-6 and TNF in all patient groups (UM, CM, and SMA) and with IL-10 and GM-CSF in UM and SMA patients (but not in CM patients) Burté et al., 2013, Blood
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = = 748 SM = HC Lyke et al., 2004, Infect Immun
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = = 145 UM = AM Jakobsen et al., 1994, Infect Immun
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum Serum n.s. 217 - correlation with platelet count John et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 209 N.I. John et al., 2008, Cytokine
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum (1 Plasmodium vivax) Brain (PM)-IHC 7 CM(falciparum) > SM(vivax) Maneerat et al., 1999, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health
IL-1b Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 99 HC were the same patients 3 weeks after treatment Abeles et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-1ra Plasmodium falciparum CSF 84 CM patients: CSF < Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-1ra Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-1ra Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 133 N.I. Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
IL-1ra Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 252 UM > AM; + correlation with sTNF-R1, fever and deep coma score Jakobsen et al., 1994, Infect Immun
IL-1ra Plasmodium falciparum Serum 209 Association with death from CM John et al., 2008, Cytokine
IL-1ra Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-1ra Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 36 levels > 10,000 pg/mL in the only SM patient and 4 patients with severe meningococcal disease; P. falciparum > P. vivax; levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with sIL-2R Bygbjerg et al., 1997, APMIS
IL-1ra:IL-1b Plasmodium falciparum Serum n.s. = 209 N.I. John et al., 2008, Cytokine
IL-2 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 97 CM > HC; endemic HC > non-endemic HC Prakash et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IL-2 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-2 Plasmodium vivax Plasma 99 HC were the same patients 3 weeks after treatment Abeles et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-2 mRNA Plasmodium falciparum Blood = n.s. 88 SM = HC Lourembam et al., 2013, Cytokine
IL-4 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 7 N.I. Maneerat et al., 1999, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health
IL-4 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-4 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = = 98 non-endemic HC, UM, CM, NCSM = endemic HC Duarte et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-4 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 97 UM = endemic HC > non-endemic HC Prakash et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IL-4 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 86 N.I. Baptista et al., 1997, Trop Med Int Health
IL-4 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 179 CM = NM; SM/NCSM = NM Burté et al., 2013, Blood
IL-4 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-4 Plasmodium vivax Plasma 99 HC were the same patients 3 weeks after treatment Abeles et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-5 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J

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