Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

SelectField
Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
IL-5 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 97 N.I. Prakash et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IL-5 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-5 Plasmodium vivax Plasma 99 HC were the same patients 3 weeks after treatment Abeles et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum CSF 84 CM patients: CSF < Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma <* 287 cerebral symptoms < cerebral symptoms + coma + MOD; + correlation with IL-10, venous lactate, standard base deficit, respiratory rate and parasite count; high levels associated with hyperparasitemia, jaundice and hemodynamic shock Day et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 145 + correlation with body temperature Perera et al., 2013, Pathog Glob Health
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 236 CM + RD, hyperparasitemia/prostration > RD; + correlation with plasma IL-10 English et al., 1997, QJM
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 58 CM, NCSM > HC Larkin et al., 2009 PLoS Pathog
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 97 N.I. Jakobsen et al., 1994, Clin Exp Immunol
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 56 SM > HC Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 86 N.I. Baptista et al., 1997, Trop Med Int Health
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 97 endemic HC < non-endemic HC Prakash et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 41 3 days after treatment: levels ↓ in survivors but not in patients who died with SM† > SM Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 38 Levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with IL-10; - correlation with protein C Vogetseder et al., 2004, Trop Med Int Health
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 47 SM > HC; + correlation with Bb Wenisch et al., 1997, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 54 SM > NM, HC; no correlation with big endothelin-1 Wenisch et al., 1996, J Infect Dis
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 48 SM > HC; plasma levels ↓ during treatment Wenisch et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma/Serum = 179 Plasma: SMA < UM; serum: SMA = UM; CM = NM/HC; SMA > NM/HC; + correlation with serum IL-1b, GM-CSF and TNF in all patient groups (UM, CM, and SMA) and with IL-10 in UM and SMA patients (but not in CM patients) Burté et al., 2013, Blood
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 748 N.I. Lyke et al., 2004, Infect Immun
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 242 CM > AM Jakobsen et al., 1994, Infect Immun
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 39 + correlation with serum TNF-a and fever Clark et al., 1992, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 217 - correlation with platelet count John et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 83 SM > HC; plasma levels ↓ after treatment; + correlation with sCD14 Wenisch et al., 1996, Clin Exp Immunol
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-6 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 53 P. falciparum (UM + 3SM), P. vivax > HC; - correlation with ADAMTS13 activity and platelet count De Mast et al., 2009, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-6 Plasmodium vivax Plasma 99 HC were the same patients 3 weeks after treatment; nontransmitters >(ns) transmitters Abeles et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IL-6 Plasmodium vivax Serum 41 Thrombocytopenic patients > non-thrombocytopenic patients; - correlation with platelet counts Coelho et al., 2013, PLoS One
IL-6:IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 287 N.I. Day et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
IL-6:IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 748 N.I. Lyke et al., 2004, Infect Immun
IL-6Rb (gp130) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 48 SM = HC Wenisch et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
IL-7 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-7 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-9 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IL-9 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
Inorganic phosphate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 + correlation with strong ion gap (representing unmeasured anions) Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
Insulin N.I. Serum 186 SM = NM Kawo et al., 1990, Lancet
Insulin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 25 N.I. Blümer et al., 2005, Metabolism
Insulin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 13 CM = HC Van Thien et al., 2001, QJM
Insulin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
Isoleucine N.I. Plasma = = 126 N.I. Lopansri et al., 2006, Infect Immun
Isoleucine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Kallikrein inhibitor Plasmodium vivax Plasma 12 P. vivax = HC Roy et al., 1988, Indian J Malariol
Kininase I Plasmodium vivax Plasma 12 P. vivax > HC Roy et al., 1988, Indian J Malariol
Kynurenic acid (KA) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = = 281 SM = NM-NCNS Medana et al., 2002, J Infect Dis
Kynurenic acid (KA) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 120 KA malawian children with CM > KA vietnamese adults with SM; + correlation with fever duration and AST; - correlation with hematocrit Medana et al., 2003, J Infect Dis
L-arg:ADMA Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 146 Levels ↑ after start of treatment (SM survivors) Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
L-arg:ornithine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 147 N.I. Yeo et al., 2007, J Exp Med
L-Phenylalanine N.I. Plasma 156 N.I. Lopansri et al., 2006, Infect Immun
L-Phenylalanine N.I. Plasma 126 N.I. Lopansri et al., 2006, Infect Immun
L-Phenylalanine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) > HC; CM = hyperparasitemia, CM > NCSM patients with premedication with folate; similar apparent Km and ↑ (calculated) brain uptake by BBB transporter for malaria group compared with HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Lactate N.I. Blood 186 SM > NM Kawo et al., 1990, Lancet
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Blood 115 Levels ↓ rapidly in survivors whereas levels ↓ slowly or even ↑ in fatal cases; concentrations between 4h and 24h were good predictors of a fatal outcome; + correlation with mortality, pyruvate concentrations, CSF lactate concentrations, blood TNF-a and IL-1a; - correlation with blood glucose concentration and clinical parameters of recovery; logistic regression indicated venous lactate ≥ 5 mmol/L (for CM CSF lactate > 4.5 mmol/L) as an independently predictive of fatal outcome Krishna et al., 1994, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Blood 118 SM > NM; - correlation with coma score and fatal outcome Agbenyega et al., 1997, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Blood 97 levels ↓ during treatment; - correlation with improvement of endothelial function (RH-PAT index) Yeo et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Blood 69 SM > HC (recoverd from UM) Sasi et al., 2007, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum CSF 281 + correlation with jaundice, shock, renal failure and pulmonary edema Medana et al., 2002, J Infect Dis
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum CSF 18 N.I. Agbenyega et al., 1997, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum CSF 23 CM patients had ↑ levels during coma on admission compared with after recovery from coma Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 306 SM† > SMseq; CM + RD, RD > CM, hyperparasitemia/prostration English et al., 1997, QJM
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 400 Hyperlactatemia is a good predictor of a fatal outcome; + correlation with heart rate, NT-proBNT, H-FABP, myoglobin; - correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure Ehrhardt et al., 2005, Microbes Infect
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 253 N.I. Hollestelle et al., 2006, Br J Haematol
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 147 N.I. Yeo et al., 2007, J Exp Med
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 24 N.I. Dondorp et al., 1998, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 127 + correlation with ADMA and SDMA Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 N.I. Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 35 SM > HC Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Lactate Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 13 CM > HC Van Thien et al., 2001, QJM
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 46 CSF:serum LDH ratio was significantly ↑ in CM patients compared to NM-NCNS patients Jakka et al., 2006, Cerebrospinal Fluid Res
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 147 SM > HC; + correlation with plasma arginase activity, sICAM-1 and sE-selectin Yeo et al., 2007, J Exp Med
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 97 N.I. Yeo et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 46 CM = NM (NM patients with viral encephalitis = NM patients without); CSF/serum LDH ratio was significantly ↑ in CM patients compared to NM patients without viral encephalitis Jakka et al., 2006, Cerebrospinal Fluid Res
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 152 N.I. Garba et al., 2005, Singapore Med J
Lactate:pyruvate Plasmodium falciparum CSF = = 281 Elevated in all studied groups Medana et al., 2002, J Infect Dis
LDL-cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 74 N.I. Djoumessi et al., 1989, Pathol Biol (Paris)
LDL-cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM < HC Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
LDL-cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum 28 P. falciparum = P. vivax; + correlation with plasma lyso-PAF Davis et al., 1993, J Infect
LDL-cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale Plasma 16 Levels were normalized at follow-up after 2 weeks Nilsson-Ehle et al., 1990, J Intern Med
Leucine N.I. Plasma = 126 N.I. Lopansri et al., 2006, Infect Immun
Leucine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 48 CM = RF = NCSM = HC; - correlation with parasitemia, TNF-a, sTNFR1 and IL-6; + correlation with platelet count and fever before treatment Wenisch et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
LT Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 97 N.I. Jakobsen et al., 1994, Clin Exp Immunol
LT Plasmodium falciparum Serum 39 N.I. Clark et al., 1992, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Lysine N.I. Plasma = 126 N.I. Lopansri et al., 2006, Infect Immun
Lysine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Lyso-platelet activating factor (lyso-PAF) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 35 SM < HC; levels increased during therapy for CM patients; - correlation with parasitemia and serum triglyceride concentration Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Lyso-platelet activating factor (lyso-PAF) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 28 P. falciparum = P. vivax; + correlation with serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol Davis et al., 1993, J Infect
Lysozyme Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 65 + correlation with HNL Mohammed et al., 2003, Acta Trop
m-(mu)Calpain (I) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 41 Axons: SM = NM-CNS → extent and distribution staining differed; + correlation with b-APP; Neurons: SM > NM-NCNS (nuclear staining); CM = NCSM = NM-CNS; Glia: CM > NCSM = NM-NCNS = NM-CNS; Endothelial cells: CM = NCSM = NM-CNS Medana et al., 2007, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
m-Calpain (II) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 41 Axons: SM = NM-CNS → extent and distribution staining differed; + correlation with b-APP; Neurons: SM > NM-NCNS (diffuse cytoplasmic staining); CM = NCSM = NM-CNS; Endothelial cells: CM = NCSM = NM-CNS Medana et al., 2007, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
Macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 24 N.I. Brown et al., 1999, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
Magnesium Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 N.I. Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 200 Incidence of low MBL and corresponding mutations in MBL gene: SM>UM Luty et al., 1998, J Infect Dis
Methemoglobin Plasmodium falciparum Finger pulse co-oximeter measurement = = 117 SM = NM Yeo et al., 2013, J Infect Dis
Methionine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Microparticles (endothelial cell-derived) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = n.s. 158 CM, SM > HC; (partial) normalisation at patient discharge; + correlation with TNF Sahu et al., 2013, Inf. Immun.; also Sahu et al., 2013, Human Immunol
Microparticles (erythrocyte-derived) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = n.s. 158 CM, SM > HC; (partial) normalisation at patient discharge; + correlation with parasite density and TNF; - correlation with hemoglobin and erythrocyte count Sahu et al., 2013, Inf. Immun.; also Sahu et al., 2013, Human Immunol
Microparticles (platelet-derived) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = n.s. 158 CM, SM > HC; (partial) normalisation at patient discharge; - correlation with platelet count; + correlation with TNF Sahu et al., 2013, Inf. Immun.; also Sahu et al., 2013, Human Immunol
Microparticles (total) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = n.s. 158 CM, SM > HC; The -477C/T and -320G/C ABCA1 promoter polymorhisms are associated with an increase in plasma microparticle numbers and with susceptibility to SM; (partial) normalisation at patient discharge; + correlation with parasite density; - correlation with hemoglobin Sahu et al., 2013, Inf. Immun.; also Sahu et al., 2013, Human Immunol

Pages

CSV