Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

SelectField
Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
Uric acid Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 555 Before episode < during episode > after episode; + correlation with sICAM-1 and sTM in UM Mita-Mendoza et al., 2013, PLoS One
Valine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
VCAM-1 (CD106) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 21 + correlation with sequestration of pRBC; only vascular staining; receptor staining also in vessels without pRBC sequestration → receptor upregulation is not solely the result of pRBC binding to a specific EC, but more likely the result of systemically produced soluble mediators; also pRBC sequestration without receptor expression; receptor staining and pRBC sequestration in cerebellum > receptor staining and pRBC sequestration in cerebrum and brainstem Armah et al., 2005, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
VCAM-1 (CD106) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 18 No staining in brains from patients who died from NM causes Ockenhouse et al., 1992, J Exp Med
VEGF Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM) 13 staining in BBB-forming astrocytes Deininger et al., 2003, J Neuroimmunol
VEGF Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 124 CMseq = CMnseq; Plasma VEGF was associated with seizures during admission, with risk for intracranial pressure and with pappiloedema, + correlation with Plasma TNF-a and - correlation with Plasma EPO Casals-Pascual et al., 2008, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
VEGF Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
VEGF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 124 CMseq = CMnseq; plasma VEGF was associated with seizures during admission, with risk for intracranial pressure, with pappiloedema, + correlation with plasma TNF-a and - correlation with plasma EPO Casals-Pascual et al., 2008, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
VEGF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma < = = 133 N.I. Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
VEGF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 146 - correlation with lactate, ANG2, HRP2 and sE-selectin Yeo et al., 2008, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
VEGF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 555 Before episode = during episode = after episode Mita-Mendoza et al., 2013, PLoS One
VEGF Plasmodium falciparum Platelet-poor plasma 52 Malaria (SM + UM) = HC; + correlation with plasma ANG1, sP-selectin, and CXCL7 (NAP-2) Brouwers et al., 2012, PLoS One
VEGF Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
VEGF Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 114 P. falciparum = P. vivax; NM = HC; no difference between races; levels returned to normal after treatment; VEGF was observed in supernatants of HMC-1 and KU812 cells (human mast cells) after stimulation with P. vivax or P. falciparum crude antigens Furuta et al., 2010, Am J Trop Med Hyg
VEGFR1 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM) 13 paracellular deposits in Dürck's granuloma's, no staining if no Dürck's granulomas are present Deininger et al., 2003, J Neuroimmunol
Vinculin Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 24 NCSM = NM-NCNS Brown et al., 1999, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
vWF Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 18 N.I. Turner et al., 1994, Am J Pathol
vWF activation factors Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 53 P. falciparum (UM + 3SM) > P. vivax = HC; - correlation with ADAMTS13:Ag and platelet counts De Mast et al., 2009, Am J Trop Med Hyg
vWF propeptide Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 253 + correlation with lactate; mean propeptide concentration normalized 72h after start treatment Hollestelle et al., 2006, Br J Haematol
vWF propeptide Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 56 SM > HC; - correlation with thrombocyte number Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
vWF(:Ag) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 58 CM = NCSM > HC; ↑ vWF collagen binding activity in CM and NCSM patients compared to HC that ↓ 72h after start treatment; presence of abnormal ultra-large (UL) vWF multimers (not in HC) Larkin et al., 2009 PLoS Pathog
vWF(:Ag) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 56 + correlation with thrombocytopenia; presence of abnormal ultra-large (UL) vWF multimers (in some patients from all groups) Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
vWF(:Ag) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 253 ↑vWF measured in plasma was from EC origin; mean vWF concentration ↓ 72h after start treatment but remained higher than in controls Hollestelle et al., 2006, Br J Haematol
vWF(:Ag) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 53 P. falciparum (UM + 3SM) = P. vivax > HC; P. falciparum patients had ultra-large (UL)-vWF in plasma; - correlation with ADAMTS13:Ag De Mast et al., 2009, Am J Trop Med Hyg
vWF(CB:Ag) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 58 CM, NCSM > HC Larkin et al., 2009 PLoS Pathog
ZO-1 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 24 NCSM = NM-NCNS Brown et al., 1999, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol

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