Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

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Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 84 CM patients: CSF < Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 111 SM < HC Hermsen et al., 2003, Clin Exp Immunol
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 287 cerebral symptoms < cerebral symptoms + coma + MOD; + correlation with parasite count and hematocrit; high levels were associated with hyperparasitemia, jaundice and hemodynamic shock Day et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = n.s. 466 + correlation with IL-1a and TNF-a Kwiatkowski et al., 1990, Lancet
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 106 Association between ↓ risk of CM and the IFNg-183T allele and the IFNg-183G/T genotype Cabantous et al., 2005, J Infect Dis
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. 200 N.I. Luty et al., 2000, Infect Immun
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 29 N.I. Perkmann et al., 2005, Cytokine
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. n.s. n.s. 123 CM > HC Guiyedi et al., 2007, PLoS One
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 135 CM, AM > HC; CM < AM; NCSM = HC Duarte et al., 2007, Malar J
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Malaria (NCSM + UM) > HC (patients in the convalescent phase of malaria) Awandare et al., 2006, Clin Immunol
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 129 NCSM > HC Perkins et al., 2001, J Infect Dis
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 98 CM, NCSM, UM > endemic HC; + correlation with plasma total IgE Duarte et al., 2007, Malar J
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 48 N.I. Deloron et al., 1994, Clin Infect Dis
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 97 SM > HC; endemic HC = non-endemic HC Prakash et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Serum 54 + correlation with IL-10 Wenisch et al., 1995, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Serum 177 CM > AM; UM > AM Al-Yaman et al., 1998, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Serum 217 N.I. John et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum (1 Plasmodium vivax) Brain (PM)-IHC 7 CM(falciparum) > SM(vivax) Maneerat et al., 1999, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health
IFN-g Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 255 UM vivax = UM falciparum > HC; P. vivax: anemic patients = non-anemic patients; patients without parasite-specific IgM > patients with parasite-specific IgM; patients without parasite-specific IgG < patients with parasite-specific IgG; P. falciparum: anemic patients = non-anemic patients; patients without parasite-specific IgM, IgG = patients with parasite-specific IgM, IgG Fernandes et al., 2006, Clin Vaccine Immunol
IFN-g Plasmodium vivax Plasma 99 HC were the same patients 3 weeks after treatment; nontransmitters = transmitters Abeles et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IFN-g Plasmodium vivax Serum 41 Thrombocytopenic patients = non-thrombocytopenic patients Coelho et al., 2013, PLoS One
IFN-g mRNA Plasmodium falciparum Blood n.s. = 88 SM = HC Lourembam et al., 2013, Cytokine
IgA-immune complexes (IC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = <* 233 Follow up: CM > SMA and UM = CM, SMA; in patients with SMA or CM: levels at admission = follow up; protective against CM Mibei et al., 2008, Parasite Immunol
IgE against C-terminus of Pf332-C231 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. 256 ↑ levels were associated with ↑ risk of SM Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
IgE-immune complexes (IC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 233 Follow up: CM = SMA = UM; in patients with SMA: levels at admission = follow up; in patients with CM: levels at admission >* follow up; independent predictor of CM Mibei et al., 2008, Parasite Immunol
IgG against a-galactosyl Plasmodium falciparum CSF 65 CM > NM Ravindran et al., 1992, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
IgG against b-tubulin 3 (TBB3) (brain) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 98 CM > HC Bansal et al., 2009, PLoS One
IgG against C-terminus of Pf332-C231 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 256 Malaria: predominantly IgG1, IgG2 or IgG3 (↓ IgG4) Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
IgG against C2 fragment of RAP1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 269 Levels were ↓ at follow up (after 1 month) in CM and SMA patients Dobaño et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
IgG against cardiolipin (CL) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 99 Incidence: malaria (CM + UM) > HC Soni et al., 1993, S Afr Med J
IgG against cardiolipin (CL) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 255 Number of UM patients > number of HC; number of P. vivax patients = number of P. falciparum patients Fernandes et al., 2006, Clin Vaccine Immunol
IgG against conserved C-terminal ATS domain of PfEMP-1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 89 Semi-immune adults (IA) > HC; T cell response to rATSPfEMP1: IA > SM = UM > HC; T cell IFN-g and IL-4 response to rATSPfEMP1: IA = SM = UM > HC Das et al., 2007, Parasitol Int
IgG against conserved C-terminal region of MSP119 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 269 Prevalence rate of anti-MSP-1: CM > SMA, UM; levels were ↓ at follow up (after 1 month) in CM and SMA patients Dobaño et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
IgG against conserved C-terminal region of MSP119 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 340 SM > HC; prevalence of anti-MSP119-IgG: SM < UM independent of age, malaria (SM + UM) > HC; no IgG detected in < 1 year patients; no ↓ in prevalence of IgG 28 days after infection A-Elgadir et al., 2008, Parasitol Res
IgG against conserved C-terminal region of MSP119 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 52 Anti-MSP119-IgG > anti-MSP1block2-IgG Cavanagh et al., 1998, J Immunol
IgG against conserved C-terminal region of MSP119 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 149 + correlation with number of recognized MSP Ags (MSP119 - MSP2A - MSP2B) and random blood glucose; - correlation with number of clinical malaria attacks in past 2 years and fever duration (after exclusion of 2 outliers); Giha et al., 2009, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis
IgG against conserved C-terminal region of MSP142 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 269 Prevalence rate of anti-MSP1: CM > SMA, UM; levels were ↓ at follow up (after 1 month) in CM and SMA patients Dobaño et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
IgG against conserved C-terminal region of MSP2 (K1 17/14) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 269 SMA patients: undetectable levels against C-terminal region of anti-MSP2 (K1 17/14); prevalence rate of anti-MSP2 (K1 17/14): CM > SMA; levels were ↓ at follow up (after 1 month) in CM patients Dobaño et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
IgG against conserved N-terminal block 1 region of MSP1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 52 Rarely detected Cavanagh et al., 1998, J Immunol
IgG against dimorphic type of MSP2 (FC27-type protein T9/105 12/6) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 269 Prevalence rate of anti-MSP2 (T9/105 12/6): CM > SMA, UM; levels were ↓ at follow up (after 1 month) in CM patients Dobaño et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
IgG against dimorphic type of MSP2 (FC27-type protein T9/105 12/6) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 545 IgG3 > IgG1 > IgG2, IgG4; IgG FC27 > IgG 3D7; < 5 years old: IgG1, IgG3: UM > SM = HC; - correlation between anti-MSP2FC27-IgG1 and risk of SM; > 5 years old: IgG1, IgG3: UM > SM > HC Iriemenam et al., 2009, Vaccine
IgG against dimorphic type of MSP2A (IC1/3D7-type protein T9/96 13/14) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 269 Prevalence rate of anti-MSP2 (IC1/3D7 T9/96 13/14): CM > SMA; levels were ↓ at follow up (after 1 month) in CM patients Dobaño et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
IgG against dimorphic type of MSP2A (IC1/3D7-type protein T9/96 13/14) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 340 SM > HC; prevalence of anti-MSP2A-IgG: SM < UM, malaria (SM + UM) > HC; no ↓ in prevalence of IgG 28 days after infection A-Elgadir et al., 2008, Parasitol Res
IgG against dimorphic type of MSP2A (IC1/3D7-type protein T9/96 13/14) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 545 IgG3, IgG1 > IgG2, IgG4; IgG FC27 > IgG 3D7; + correlation between anti-MSP2-IgG3 and protection from SM; HC: IgG3 < IgG1; malaria: IgG3 > IgG1; > 5 years old: IgG1UM > IgG1SM Iriemenam et al., 2009, Vaccine
IgG against dimorphic type of MSP2B (GF/88) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 340 SM = HC; prevalence of anti-MSP2B-IgG: SM < UM, malaria (SM + UM) > HC; no ↓ in prevalence of IgG 28 days after infection A-Elgadir et al., 2008, Parasitol Res
IgG against full-length FC27-type protein or against polymorphic regions of MSP2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 269 N.I. Dobaño et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
IgG against g-aminobutyric acid synthesizing enzyme (GAD) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 199 HC = AM = NM-CNS Lang et al., 2004, J Infect Dis
IgG against highly conserved N-terminal DBL-1a domains of PfEMP-1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 122 + correlation with anti-rifin-IgG in acute phase samples; both anti-rifin-IgG and anti-DBL-1a-IgG contribute to the overall antibody response to VSA Abdel-Latif et al., 2004, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IgG against MSP3 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 545 IgG3, IgG1 > IgG2, IgG4; malaria: IgG3 > IgG1; HC: IgG3 < IgG1; for IgG3 in > 5 years old: SM < UM > HC Iriemenam et al., 2009, Vaccine
IgG against MSPall (MSP119+ MSP2A + MSP2B) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 340 Prevalence of anti-MSPall-IgG: SM < UM, malaria (SM + UM) > HC; proportion of patients that recognized all 3 Ags: SM < UM; anti-MSP119-IgG > anti-MSP2B-IgG; + correlation between prevalence of anti-MSP1all-IgG and age; prevalence rate against at least 1 of the 3 Ags: malaria patients with hypotension (HTN) = CM, HTN > SMA, HTN and CM > convulsion-associated malaria; no ↓ in prevalence of IgG 28 days after infection A-Elgadir et al., 2008, Parasitol Res
IgG against muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 199 Undetectable Lang et al., 2004, J Infect Dis
IgG against N-terminus of SERA5 (SE36) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 205 Prevalence of anti-SE36-IgG: SM < UM (6-24 months age group), SM = UM (children between 25-59 months age group); SM: 25-59 months age group > 6-12 months age group; + correlation with packed cell volume and Hb; - correlation with parasite density and % of pigmented WBC; UM: temperature: ↑ IgG < ↓ IgG Okech et al., 2006, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IgG against non-erythroid spectrin (a and b) (brain) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 123 Intensity of the reactivity to band-0 (spectrin): CM > NCSM, UM, + correlation with TNF-a Guiyedi et al., 2007, PLoS One
IgG against non-infected RBC protein extract Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 98 Malaria (CM + SM + UM) > HC Bansal et al., 2009, PLoS One
IgG against non-infected RBC protein extract Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 255 Number of UM patients > number of HC; number of P. vivax patients > number of P. falciparum patients; P. vivax: + correlation with MIF; P. falciparum: + correlation with IL-12 Fernandes et al., 2006, Clin Vaccine Immunol
IgG against P-/Q- and N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 299 HC = AM = NM-CNS = undetectable; no positive antibody titers in 6 CM†; + correlation with parasitemia; + correlation between P-/Q- type and N-type VGCC antibody titers Lang et al., 2004, J Infect Dis
IgG against PfEMP-13D7 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 60 HC with a history of malaria: no difference in IgG directed against a particular group (A, B/A, B, C, B/C) or domain type (a, b, g, d, e, x), acquisition of IgG in a fixed sequence, transmission-independent and age- dependent; rate of IgG acquisition is dependent on the intensity of transmission Joergensen et al., 2007, J Immunol
IgG against phosphatidylcholine (PC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 131 N.I. Jakobsen et al., 1993, Immunology
IgG against phosphatidylcholine (PC) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 49 CM† = UM; IgG4 N.D.; IgG3 > IgG2 > IgG1; IgG1: CM > CM†, CM = UM; IgG2 + IgG3: CM† = CM = UM; - correlation between IgG1 and TNF-a Das et al., 1996, Clin Exp Immunol
IgG against phosphatidylinositol (PI) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 131 N.I. Jakobsen et al., 1993, Immunology
IgG against phosphatidylinositol (PI) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 82 N.I. Facer et al., 1994, Clin Exp Immunol
IgG against Plasmodial GPI Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 135/204/341 Pediatric patients < adult patients; + association with age; AM >* UM; AM and patients with fever and low par: anti-GPI-IgGMay = anti-GPI-IgGOctober; UM: anti-GPI-IgGMay < anti-GPI-IgGOctober; < 2 years old: ↓ prevalence of anti-GPI-IgG; anti-GPI-IgG prevalence: CM = SMA = UM > NM De Souza et al., 2002, Infect Immun
IgG against Plasmodial GPI Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 606 Proportion of patients with anti-GPI-IgG: SM = UM, SM† > HC, SM > HC, CM > HC, SMA + hyperparasitemia = UM = HC,; + correlation with age and absolute parasitemia; children enrolled early = end < middle of the transmission season; levels ↓ in the dry season Cissoko et al., 2006, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IgG against Plasmodial GPI Plasmodium falciparum Serum 350/198 < 2 years old: no anti-GPI-IgG in ~50% of the children, ~40% had short-lived Ab responses and ~10% had long-lived Ab-responses; ~75% of 7-8 years old and all adults had long-lived Ab responses; + association with age, Hb and temperature Naik et al., 2000, J Exp Med
IgG against rifin (rif-29) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 116 SM > HC/NM; IgG1, IgG3 > IgG2, IgG4 Schreiber et al., 2006, Microbes Infect
IgG against rifin (rif-29, -40, -44, -50) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 102 SM < AM; - correlation with time to parasite clearance; anti-rifin-IgG peaked 1 month after admission and remained ↑ until end of measurement (after 24 months) during which period none of the children became sick of malaria Abdel-Latif et al., 2003, Infect Immun
IgG against rifin (rif-29, -40, -44, -50) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 122 + correlation with anti-DBL-1a-IgG in acute phase samples; - correlation with anti-VSA-IgG in UM convalescent phase samples; both anti-rifin-IgG and anti-DBL-1a-IgG contribute to the overall antibody response to VSA Abdel-Latif et al., 2004, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IgG against the ectodomein of AMA1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 269 Prevalence rate of anti-AMA1: CM > SMA*; levels were ↓ at follow up (after 1 month) in CM patients Dobaño et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
IgG against the ectodomein of AMA1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 545 IgG1 > IgG3 > IgG2, IgG4; + correlation with protection from SM; < 5 years old: UM = HC[>]p=0.051; > 5 years old: UM > HC Iriemenam et al., 2009, Vaccine
IgG against total brain protein extract Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 123 Median number of cerebral antigens recognized by plasma IgG: CM = NCSM = UM > HC; Proportion of individuals with a ↑ number of bands (> 12): CM = NCSM > UM, HC; reactivity to brain antigens (factor 1 score): CM >* NCSM = UM = HC > European HC; factor 1 score was particularly ↑ in CM patients with ↑ plasma TNF-a Guiyedi et al., 2007, PLoS One
IgG against total brain protein extract Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 98 Malaria (CM + SM + UM) > HC; median number of cerebral antigens recognized by plasma IgG: malaria (CM + SM + UM) > HC; reactivity to brain antigens (factor 1 score): CM > SM = UM > HC; similar profile reactivity to brain antigens for Gabonese children (67) and Indian patients, but with different predominant activity (Gabonese predominantly recognize spectrin, Indians beta tubulin 3); + correlation with TNF-a, TGF-b, IL-10 and IL-1b Bansal et al., 2009, PLoS One
IgG against voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 199 HC = AM = NM-CNS Lang et al., 2004, J Infect Dis
IgG against VSA Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 200 Anti-VSA-IgG levels/person: ↑ from the acute to the healthy phase; + correlation with delay to first reinfection; + correlation between healthy phase anti-VSA-IgG and protection from malaria (UM); - correlation with malaria attack rate; - correlation with age (convalescent phase); - correlation between malaria attack rates and recognition of heterologous isolates Tebo et al., 2002, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IgG against ↑ polymorphic N-terminal block 2 region of MSP1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 52 Anti-MSP119-IgG > anti-MSP1block2-IgG Cavanagh et al., 1998, J Immunol
IgG against ↑ polymorphic N-terminal block 2 region of MSP1 (RO33 type) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 269 Prevalence rate of anti-MSP1: CM > UM; Levels were ↓ at follow up (after 1 month) in CM patients; + correlation with full recovery of CM Dobaño et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
IgG anti-IgE Plasmodium falciparum Serum 22 Malaria > HC Perlmann et al., 1997, Infect Immun
IgG-immune complexes (IC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma >* = 233 Follow up: CM > SMA = UM; in patients with SMA: levels at admission = follow up; in patients with CM: levels at admission > follow up; independent predictor of CM Mibei et al., 2008, Parasite Immunol
IgG-immune complexes (IC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 259 CM, SMA > AM; levels ↓ following treatment; + correlation with parasite density (SMA); - correlation with Hb levels (AM) Mibei et al., 2005, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IgG1 against C-terminus of Pf332-C231 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 256 SM > HC; + correlation with protection from SM Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
IgG1 against rifin (rif-29) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 116 CM = HC/NM; NCSM = HC/NM; prevalence of anti-rif29-IgG1: CM = NCSM = HC/NM Schreiber et al., 2006, Microbes Infect
IgG1,IgG3 against GLURP (R0 and R2) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 545 > 5 years: IgG3 > IgG1 > IgG2, IgG4; < 5 years: IgG1 > IgG3 > IgG2, IgG4, IgG4; + correlation between anti-GLURPR0-IgG1 and protection from SM; > 5 years old: SM,UM > HC Iriemenam et al., 2009, Vaccine
IgG1-immune complexes (IC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 233 Follow up: CM > SMA = UM; in patients with SMA: levels at admission = follow up; in patients with CM: levels at admission > follow up Mibei et al., 2008, Parasite Immunol
IgG2 against C-terminus of Pf332-C231 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. 256 SM > HC; + correlation* with protection from SM in patients with FcgRIIa-H131 Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
IgG2 against rifin (rif-29) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 116 CM > HC/NM; NCSM = HC/NM; prevalence of anti-rif29-IgG2: CM > NCSM = HC/NM Schreiber et al., 2006, Microbes Infect
IgG2-immune complexes (IC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. = 233 Follow up: CM = SMA = UM; in patients with SMA: levels at admission = follow up; in patients with CM: levels at admission > follow up Mibei et al., 2008, Parasite Immunol
IgG3 against C-terminus of Pf332-C231 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. 256 SM > HC Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
IgG3 against rifin (rif-29) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 116 CM > HC/NM; NCSM > HC/NM; prevalence of anti-rif29-IgG3: CM = NCSM > HC/NM Schreiber et al., 2006, Microbes Infect
IgG3-immune complexes (IC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 233 Follow up: CM = SMA = UM; in patients with SMA: levels at admission = follow up; in patients with CM: levels at admission > follow up Mibei et al., 2008, Parasite Immunol
IgG4 against C-terminus of Pf332-C231 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 256 + correlation* with risk of SM Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
IgG4 against rifin (rif-29) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 116 CM > HC/NM; NCSM = HC/NM; prevalence of anti-rif29-IgG4: CM > HC/NM, NCSM = HC/NM; CM = NCSM Schreiber et al., 2006, Microbes Infect
IgG4-immune complexes (IC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma >* = 233 Follow up: CM > SMA and UM = CM, SMA; in patients with SMA or CM: levels at admission >* follow up; independent predictor of SMA Mibei et al., 2008, Parasite Immunol
IgG:IgE Plasmodium falciparum Serum 70 N.I. Perlmann et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
IgM against C-terminus of Pf332-C231 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 256 N.I. Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
IgM against PC Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 131 N.I. Jakobsen et al., 1993, Immunology
IgM against PC Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 49 N.I. Das et al., 1996, Clin Exp Immunol
IgM against PI Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 131 N.I. Jakobsen et al., 1993, Immunology
IgM against PI Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 82 N.I. Facer et al., 1994, Clin Exp Immunol
IgM against Plasmodial GPI Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 606 Proportion of patients with anti-GPI-IgM: SM = UM > HC, CM > HC, SM† > HC, SMA + hyperparasitemia = UM, HC; IgM in HC: children enrolled early > middle = end of the transmission season; IgM in malaria: children enrolled early = middle = end of the transmission season Cissoko et al., 2006, Am J Trop Med Hyg

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