Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

SelectField
Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
MIF Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = = 56 No differences were oberved in the brain, independent of parasite sequestration or brain pathology; + staining of inflamed meninges, astrocytes and ependymal cells Clark et al., 2003, Malar J
MIF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. n.s. = 138 + association between log MIF levels and fatal outcome Jain et al., 2009, BMC Res Notes
MIF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Malaria (NCSM + UM) < HC (patients in the convalescent phase of malaria); PBMC-derived MIF mRNA from malaria < PBMC-derived MIF mRNA from HC; + correlation with IL-12 and TGF-b1; IFN-g was the most significant predictor of MIF independent of disease severity Awandare et al., 2006, Clin Immunol
MIF Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 255 UM vivax = UM falciparum > HC; P. vivax: anemic patients = non-anemic patients; patients without parasite-specific IgM < patients with parasite-specific IgM; patients without parasite-specific IgG = patients with parasite-specific IgG; + correlation with IgG against components of the RBC membrane; P. falciparum: anemic patients = non-anemic patients; patients without parasite-specific IgM, IgG = patients with parasite-specific IgM, IgG Fernandes et al., 2006, Clin Vaccine Immunol
MMP-1 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM) 13 MMP-1 staining of macrophages/astrocytes in Dürck's granulomas, absent if no Dürck's granulomas are present Deininger et al., 2003, J Neuroimmunol
MMP-8 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = = 128 NM > HC; + correlation with neutrophil count Dietmann et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
MMP-9 Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 71 Only significantly increased in the tubercular and bacterial meningitis group, but not in the cryptococcal meningitis , viral encephalitis or CM Brown et al., 2000, Neurology
MMP-9 Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
MMP-9 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = = = 128 N.I. Dietmann et al., 2008, J Infect Dis
MMP-9 Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
Myeloid-related protein 14 (MRP14, S100A9) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 7 Widespread expression of MRP14 (early activation marker) in microglial cells in white and gray matter of CM patients Schluesener et al., 1998, Acta Neuropathol
Myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8, S100A8) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 7 Widespread expression of MRP8 (early activation marker) in microglial cells in white and gray matter of CM patients Schluesener et al., 1998, Acta Neuropathol
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 65 + correlation with HNL Mohammed et al., 2003, Acta Trop
Myoglobin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 400 Elevated myoglobin is a good predictor of a fatal outcome; + correlation with plasma H-FABP, NT-proBNP, CK-MB, convulsions, impaired consciousness, parasitemia, CM and lactate levels; - correlation with glucose levels and Hb Ehrhardt et al., 2005, Microbes Infect
N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 400 + correlation with plasma H-FABP, CK-MB, myoglobin, SMA and blood lactate levels; - correlation with glucose levels Ehrhardt et al., 2005, Microbes Infect
Neopterin Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 121-175 CMseq = CMnseq Dobbie et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Neopterin Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 127 + correlation with biopterin and sTNFR2 Weiss et al., 1998, J Infect Dis
Neopterin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 93 Plasma levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with CRP, parasite clearance time, parasitemia and duration of symptoms after therapy Kremsner et al., 1996, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
neuron-specific enolase (NSE) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 36 SM = NM-NCNS; - correlation with arterial and CSF pH Medana et al., 2005, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Neutrophil elastase (ELA2, HNE) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 71 + correlation with parasite count, serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (sGOT/AST) and blood urea nitrogen; - correlation with platelet count and anti-thrombin III activity Pukrittayakamee et al., 1992, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Neutrophil elastase (ELA2, HNE) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 32 SM > HC Clemens et al., 1994, Br J Haematol
Neutrophil elastase (ELA2, HNE) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 45 + correlation with TNF-a and parasitemia Holst et al., 1999, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Neutrophil elastase (ELA2, HNE) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 37 + correlation with thrombomodulin Hemmer et al., 1994, Thromb Haemost
NO2- + NO3-(NOx) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 130-184 European controls = Kenyan controls; CMseq = CMnseq Dobbie et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
NO2- + NO3-(NOx) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 130 N.I. Weiss et al., 1998, J Infect Dis
NO2- + NO3-(NOx) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = = = = 19 N.I. Agbenyega et al., 1997, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
NO2- + NO3-(NOx) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 16 SM = HC; + correlation with plasma nitrate level Dondorp et al., 1998, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Norepinephrine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. = 25 N.I. Blümer et al., 2005, Metabolism
Norepinephrine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
NOS Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Malaria (NCSM + UM) > HC (patients in the convalescent phase of malaria) Awandare et al., 2006, Clin Immunol
NOS2 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 56 CMC > CMA, CMB, NM (CMA: no brain pathology and rare pRBC sequestration, CMB: no brain pathology and pRBC sequestration, CMC: brain pathology, mononuclear cell and pRBC sequestration) Clark et al., 2003, Malar J
NOS2 Plasmodium falciparum (1 Plasmodium vivax) Brain (PM)-IHC 19 Staining in numerous cell types, lower in recovering CM cases and minimal in P. vivax case Maneerat et al., 2000, Histopathology
O2-carrying capacity Plasmodium falciparum Finger pulse co-oximeter measurement = 117 N.I. Yeo et al., 2013, J Infect Dis
Occludin Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 24 NCSM = NM-NCNS Brown et al., 1999, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
Ornithine N.I. Plasma = 126 N.I. Lopansri et al., 2006, Infect Immun
Ornithine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 147 N.I. Yeo et al., 2007, J Exp Med
Parasite-spec IgA Plasmodium falciparum (ELISA coated with Plasmodium knowlesi Ag) CSF = 48 Not detectable Mitra et al., 1991, Clin Exp Immunol
Parasite-spec IgA Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae Serum = 233 Prevalence of IgA: NCSM = UM = AM; similar levels for patients undergoing their 1st clinical malaria attack compared to patients who reported previous clinical malaria attacks Leoratti et al., 2008, Malar J
Parasite-spec IgE Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 277 7 and 28 days after treatment: SM = UM; + correlation with parasite-specific IgG2 (SM) Tangteerawatana et al., 2007, Parasite Immunol
Parasite-spec IgE Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 580 N.I. Verra et al., 2004, Acta Trop
Parasite-spec IgE Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 647 Levels ↑ with age; SM < UM (0.5-4.0 years old), SM > UM (4.0-15 years old) Calissano et al., 2003, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Parasite-spec IgE Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 256 SM > HC; + correlation with protection from SM Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
Parasite-spec IgE Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 70 SM > UM for Ab-positive patients; + correlation with parasitemia Perlmann et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Parasite-spec IgE Plasmodium falciparum Serum 30 N.I. Perlmann et al., 1997, Infect Immun
Parasite-spec IgE Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae Serum n.s. 233 UM = AM; prevalence of IgE: NCSM = UM = AM; interactions with IgG4: NCSM > UM, AM; significantly ↑ levels for patients undergoing their 1 clinical malaria attack Leoratti et al., 2008, Malar J
Parasite-spec IgG Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 466 No differences with age Calissano et al., 2003, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Parasite-spec IgG Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 41 N.I. Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
Parasite-spec IgG Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 256 Predominantly IgG of the IgG1 subclass, while IgG4 were the ↓ levels Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 98 SM > HC Bansal et al., 2009, PLoS One
Parasite-spec IgG Plasmodium falciparum Serum 76 SM = HC Ndungu et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 70 SM < UM for Ab-positive patients; - correlation with parasitemia Perlmann et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Parasite-spec IgG Plasmodium falciparum Serum < 117 CM < non-CM (SM and/or UM?) > HC; CM > HC; % of patients with precipitating Ab who died (8.3%) < % of patients with precipitating Ab who recovered (76.5%) Brasseur et al., 1990, J Clin Microbiol
Parasite-spec IgG Plasmodium falciparum (ELISA coated with Plasmodium knowlesi Ag) CSF 48 Correlation with duration of coma Mitra et al., 1991, Clin Exp Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae Serum = 233 NCSM = AM; avidity index: NCSM < AM, UM; prevalence of IgG: NCSM = UM = AM; + correlation with age and the number of previous clinical malaria attacks; significantly ↑ levels for patients with > 5 previous clinical malaria attacks compared to patients with 0 – 5 previous clinical malaria attacks; no change in avidity index with number of previous clinical malaria attacks Leoratti et al., 2008, Malar J
Parasite-spec IgG1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 256 + correlation with protection from SM Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 41 N.I. Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
Parasite-spec IgG1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 273 Levels remained ↓ for SM compared to UM until end of testing (day 28 after treatment); + correlation with parasite-specific IgG2 and IgG3; - correlation with ↑ risk of SM on admission (significance was lost after adjusting for age and parasite-spec IgG2, IgG3 and IgE) Tangteerawatana et al., 2007, Parasite Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 66 N.I. Ferreira et al., 1998, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
Parasite-spec IgG1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 116 CM > HC/NM; NCSM = HC/NM; prevalence of parasite spec IgG1: CM = NCSM > HC/NM Schreiber et al., 2006, Microbes Infect
Parasite-spec IgG1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 76 SM = HC; elevated levels of IgG1 in relation to levels of IgG2 and IgG4 antibodies were associated with protection from SM Ndungu et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG1 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae Serum 233 NCSM < AM; avidity index: NCSM < AM, UM; prevalence of IgG1: NCSM < UM, AM; predominance of high-avidity IgG1 in UM and AM, and low-avidity IgG1 in NCSM; IgG1 Ab frequency: P. falciparum > P. vivax and P. falciparum+P. vivax > P. vivax; interactions with IgG2 and IgG3: NCSM < UM, AM; + correlation with the number of previous clinical malaria attacks; significantly ↑ levels for patients with > 5 previous clinical malaria attacks compared to patients with 0 – 5 previous clinical malaria attacks; mean avidity index ↑ with number of previous clinical malaria attacks Leoratti et al., 2008, Malar J
Parasite-spec IgG2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 41 N.I. Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
Parasite-spec IgG2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 256 N.I. Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 274 7 and 28 days after treatment: SM = UM; + correlation with parasite-spec IgG1, IgG3 and IgE (SM); - correlation with ↑ risk of SM on admission (significance was lost after adjusting for age and parasite-spec IgG1, IgG3 and IgE) Tangteerawatana et al., 2007, Parasite Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 66 N.I. Ferreira et al., 1998, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
Parasite-spec IgG2 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 116 CM, NCSM > HC/NM; prevalence of parasite spec IgG2: CM = NCSM Schreiber et al., 2006, Microbes Infect
Parasite-spec IgG2 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 76 SM = HC; elevated levels of IgG2 in relation to IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies were associated with a higher risk of developing SM Ndungu et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG2 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae Serum 233 NCSM < AM; avidity index: NCSM < AM, UM; prevalence of IgG2: NCSM < UM, AM; interactions with IgG1 and IgG3: NCSM < UM, AM; + correlation with age and the number of previous clinical malaria attacks; significantly ↑ levels for patients with > 5 previous clinical malaria attacks compared to patients with 0 – 5 previous clinical malaria attacks; no change in avidity index with number of previous clinical malaria attacks; AM with H131 allele (FcgRIIA H/R131) > NCSM + UM without H131 allele Leoratti et al., 2008, Malar J
Parasite-spec IgG3 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 256 + correlation with protection from SM (patients with FcgRIIa-H/H131 > R/R131) Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG3 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 41 Patients who died had almost no detectable IgG3 on the day of admission Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
Parasite-spec IgG3 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 276 Levels remained ↓ for SM compared to UM until end of testing (day 28 after treatment); + correlation with parasite-spec IgG1 and IgG2; - correlation with ↑ risk of SM (remained significant after adjusting for age and parasite-spec IgG1, IgG2 and IgE) Tangteerawatana et al., 2007, Parasite Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG3 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. 66 N.I. Ferreira et al., 1998, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
Parasite-spec IgG3 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 116 CM, NCSM > HC/NM; prevalence of parasite spec IgG3: CM = HC/NM, NCSM > HC/NM; CM = NCSM Schreiber et al., 2006, Microbes Infect
Parasite-spec IgG3 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 76 SM = HC Ndungu et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG3 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae Serum 233 NCSM < AM; prevalence of IgG3: NCSM < UM, AM; interactions with IgG1 and IgG2: NCSM < UM, AM; + correlation with the number of previous clinical malaria attacks; significantly ↑ levels for patients with > 5 previous clinical malaria attacks compared to patients with 0 – 5 previous clinical malaria attacks; no change in avidity index with number of previous clinical malaria attacks Leoratti et al., 2008, Malar J
Parasite-spec IgG4 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 256 + correlation with risk of SM Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG4 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 41 Very low levels Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
Parasite-spec IgG4 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 66 N.I. Ferreira et al., 1998, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
Parasite-spec IgG4 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 116 CM, NCSM = HC/NM; prevalence of parasite spec IgG4: CM = NCSM = HC/NM Schreiber et al., 2006, Microbes Infect
Parasite-spec IgG4 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 76 SM = HC Ndungu et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
Parasite-spec IgG4 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae Serum 233 NCSM > AM; prevalence of IgG4: NCSM = UM = AM; interactions with IgE: NCSM > UM, AM; - correlation with the number of previous clinical malaria attacks; significantly ↑ levels for patients undergoing their 1 clinical malaria attack; no change in avidity index with number of previous clinical malaria attacks Leoratti et al., 2008, Malar J
Parasite-spec IgM Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 256 N.I. Nasr et al., 2007, Scand J Immunol
Parasite-spec IgM Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 41 N.I. Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
Parasite-spec IgM Plasmodium falciparum Serum < 117 CM < non-CM (SM and/or UM?) > HC Brasseur et al., 1990, J Clin Microbiol
Parasite-spec IgM Plasmodium falciparum (ELISA coated with Plasmodium knowlesi Ag) CSF = 48 N.I. Mitra et al., 1991, Clin Exp Immunol
Parasite-spec IgM Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae Serum = 233 NCSM = AM; prevalence of IgM: NCSM = UM = AM; similar levels for patients undergoing their 1 clinical malaria attack compared to patients who reported previous clinical malaria attacks Leoratti et al., 2008, Malar J
PC inhibitor-1 (PCI-1) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 30 Levels returned to normal during treatment; + correlation with protein C antigen and activity, fibrinogen, platelet count and prothrombin time; - correlation with TAT, partial thromboplastin time and TNF-a Hemmer et al., 1991, Am J Med
PDGFbb Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
PDGFbb Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 133 CM†, CM < HC Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
PDGFbb Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
PECAM-1 (CD31) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = = 24 N.I. Brown et al., 1999, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
Phe:ΣNAA (%) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) > HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) Plasma = 109 CMcoma0-1 > CMcoma2-5, CM†,CMseq > CMnseq; initial plasma PLA2 activity = predictive of outcome; + correlation with TNF-a, parasitemia and % ↓ in hematocrit during stay in hospital; ↓ 24h after treatment Vadas et al., 1993, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale Serum 14 PLA2 activity P.falciparum < PLA2 activity P. vivax; + correlation with serum PLA2 activity (P. falciparum/P. vivax/P. ovale) Vadas et al., 1992, Infect Immun
Picolinic acid (PA) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 281 SM > NM-NCNS; SM† > SM (consequence of impaired renal function); + correlation with hypoglycemia, renal failure, jaundice, shock, anemia, hyperparasitemia and pulmonary edema Medana et al., 2002, J Infect Dis
Picolinic acid (PA) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 120 PA malawian children = PA vietnamse adults; + correlation with plasma creatinine at admission, fever duration and AST; - correlation with hematocrit Medana et al., 2003, J Infect Dis
Plasminogen Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 32 SM = HC Clemens et al., 1994, Br J Haematol
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 100 P. falciparum > P. vivax Mohanty et al., 1997, Am J Hematol
Platelet activating factor (PAF) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 23 CM patients had higher levels during coma on admission than after recovery from coma Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Potassium N.I. Plasma 50 N.I. Oguche et al., 2002, West Afr J Med

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