Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

SelectField
Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum CSF 124 CM† > CMnseq > CMseq Casals-Pascual et al., 2008, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum CSF = = 17 N.I. Grau et al., 1989, N Engl J Med
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 160 + correlation with bilirubin, urea and creatinine Deloron et al., 1994, Eur Cytokine Netw
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 48 N.I. Deloron et al., 1994, Clin Infect Dis
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 41 3 days after treatment: levels ↓ in both groups with SM† > SM Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 47 SM > HC; - correlation with iC3b; + correlation with Bb and SC5b-9 (MAC) Wenisch et al., 1997, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 54 SM > NM, HC; + correlation with big endothelin-1 Wenisch et al., 1996, J Infect Dis
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 CM, RF > NCSM > HC; plasma levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with sTNFR1 and IL-6 Wenisch et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 37 + correlation with thrombomodulin Hemmer et al., 1994, Thromb Haemost
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 52 CMseq = CMnseq; correlation with fever, parasitemia, plasma lactate, fever resolution time and parasite clearance time Molyneux et al., 1993, Cytokine
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 138 CMseq/CM† > CMnseq = UM > AM, HC Anstey et al., 1996, J Exp Med
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 86 SM > HC; sepsis = SM, UM; sepsis > HC (after correction for multiple comparison sepsis = HC) Turner et al., 1998, Am J Pathol
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 25 CM + UM > HC Blümer et al., 2005, Metabolism
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 13 CM > HC Van Thien et al., 2001, QJM
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 76 CM, NM = HC Brown et al., 2000, Neurology
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 124 CM† > CMseq > CMnseq Casals-Pascual et al., 2008, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 466 N.I. Kwiatkowski et al., 1990, Lancet
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 212 SM > HC; association with ↑ risk of death Tchinda et al., 2007, Acta Trop
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 200 + correlation with parasitemia and pigment-containing neutrophils Luty et al., 2000, Infect Immun
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 59 + correlation with parasitemia Perkins et al., 2000, J Infect Dis
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 77 NCSM patients are patiens with SMA Kurtzhals et al., 1998, Lancet
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 123 75% of CM† had very ↑ plasma levels of TNF-a; + correlation with reactivity to brain antigens for children > 1 year old (PCA factor 1 score); + correlation with intensity of the unadjusted reactivity to non-erythroid a and b spectrin Guiyedi et al., 2007, PLoS One
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 135 UM < HC = AM Duarte et al., 2007, Malar J
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 157 Malaria (SM + UM) > NM, HC; endotoxin stimulated mononuclear cells of UM patients produce more TNF-a compared with convalescent patients and HC Kwiatkowski et al., 1989, Clin Exp Immunol
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 115 Levels did not significantly change during the first 24h; logistic regression indicated TNF-a levels > 300 pg/mL as an independently predictive of fatal outcome; + correlation with admission venous lactate concentrations, and blood IL-1a; - correlation with blood glucose concentration (not independently of hyperlactatemia) Krishna et al., 1994, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. 129 NCSM > HC Perkins et al., 2001, J Infect Dis
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Malaria (NCSM + UM) > HC (patients in the convalescent phase of malaria) Awandare et al., 2006, Clin Immunol
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 98 NCSM, UM > endemic HC > non-endemic HC; + correlation with plasma total IgE Duarte et al., 2007, Malar J
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 86 N.I. Baptista et al., 1997, Trop Med Int Health
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 97 endemic HC ≥ non-endemic HC Prakash et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Plasma/Serum 81 MOD > CM; + correlation with depth of coma Manish et al., 2003, Trop Med Int Health
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum 15 N.I. Perlmann et al., 1997, Infect Immun
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 164 ROC curve analysis showed no discrimination between CM and UM patients; + correlation with parasitemia Lovegrove et al., 2009, PLoS One
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum 83 SM > HC; plasma levels ↓ after treatment; + correlation with sCD14 Wenisch et al., 1996, Clin Exp Immunol
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 60 ROC curve analysis showed moderate discrimination between CM and UM patients; + correlation with parasitemia Lovegrove et al., 2009, PLoS One
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum 54 Serum TNF-a ↓ during treatment; - correlation with TGF-b; + correlation with sTNFR1 Wenisch et al., 1995, J Clin Immun
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum 45 + correlation with parasitemia Holst et al., 1999, Am J Trop Med Hyg
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum 54 Levels returned to normal during treatment; + correlation with parasitemia, TAT and partial thromboplastin time, ; - correlation with platelet count, fibrinogen, protein C antigen and activity, protein C inhibitor-1 and prothrombin time Hemmer et al., 1991, Am J Med
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum 65 CM > HC; ↑ in patients with hypoglycemia, hyperparasitemia and age < 3 years; - correlation with time of death (hours): association between hypoglycemia and mortality Grau et al., 1989, N Engl J Med
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 748 N.I. Lyke et al., 2004, Infect Immun
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 254 CM > NM Jakobsen et al., 1994, Infect Immun
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 177 CM, UM > AM Al-Yaman et al., 1998, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum 39 + correlation with serum IL-6 and fever Clark et al., 1992, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 217 - correlation with platelet count John et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum 33 CM = NCSM + UM Esamai et al., 2003, J Trop Pediatr
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum (1 Plasmodium vivax) Brain (PM)-IHC 7 CM(falciparum) > SM(vivax) Maneerat et al., 1999, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health
TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 255 UM vivax = UM falciparum > HC; P. vivax: anemic patients = non-anemic patients; patients without parasite-specific IgM > patients with parasite-specific IgM; patients without parasite-specific IgG < patients with parasite-specific IgG; P. falciparum: anemic patients < non-anemic patients; patients without parasite-specific IgM, IgG = patients with parasite-specific IgM, IgG Fernandes et al., 2006, Clin Vaccine Immunol
TNF-a:IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 77 NCSM patients are patients with SMA Kurtzhals et al., 1998, Lancet
TNF-a:sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 160 N.I. Deloron et al., 1994, Eur Cytokine Netw
TNF-a:sTNF-R1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 52 N.I. Molyneux et al., 1993, Cytokine
TNF-a:sTNF-R1/2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 160 N.I. Deloron et al., 1994, Eur Cytokine Netw
TNF-a:sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 160 N.I. Deloron et al., 1994, Eur Cytokine Netw
TNF-a:sTNF-R2 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 52 N.I. Molyneux et al., 1993, Cytokine
TNF:IL-10 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 145 SM = febrile UM > UM Perera et al., 2013, Pathog Glob Health
Total cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 41 NM (febrile children) < HC Agbedana at al., 1990, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
Total cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM < HC; levels increased during therapy Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Total cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum Serum 74 N.I. Djoumessi et al., 1989, Pathol Biol (Paris)
Total cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum 28 P. falciparum = P. vivax; + correlation with plasma lyso-PAF and acetylhydrolase (AH) activity Davis et al., 1993, J Infect
Total IgA Plasmodium falciparum Serum 117 Malaria > HC Brasseur et al., 1990, J Clin Microbiol
Total IgA Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 125 P. vivax = P. falciparum Jhaveri et al., 1997, Natl Med J India
Total IgE N.I. Plasma = 50 N.I. Nacher et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
Total IgE Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 25 CM > NM; all CM patients had IgE deposition; IgE deposition on IgG and pRBC was ↑ in patients with pRBC sequestration in >50% of the microvessels compared to <50% of the microvessels containing pRBC; degree of IgE deposition on brain microvessels and pRBC tended to be correlated with degree of coma Maeno et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Total IgE Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = = 135 HC = AM; a ↑ % of patients with clinical disease had ↑ IgE levels than HC and AM; no ↓ in IgE levels 30 days after treatment; + correlation with age, parasite load (UM) and plasma IL-10 (UM); - correlation with parasite load (AM, CM and NCSM) and plasma IL-10 (AM); ↑ expression of FceRI on mast cells after incubation with serum samples from patients from all groups; % of patients with functional P. falciparum IgE was ↑ in AM and UM compared to CM, NCSM and HC Duarte et al., 2007, Malar J
Total IgE Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 98 NCSM > HC; ex-CM = CM = HC; endemic HC > non-endemic HC; IgE Indian adults > IgE Gabonese children; a ↑ % of patients with clinical disease had ↑ IgE levels than HC; no ↓ in IgE levels 30 days after treatment; + correlation with parasite load (UM and NCSM), plasma IFN-g, TNF-a and IL-10; ↑ expression of FceRI on mast cells after incubation with serum samples from patients from all groups; % of patients with functional P. falciparum IgE was slightly ↑ in HC and UM compared to CM and NCSM Duarte et al., 2007, Malar J
Total IgE Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 580 + correlation with IL4-589C/T polymorphism in SM independent of age Verra et al., 2004, Acta Trop
Total IgE Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 661 < 4 years old: NCSM = CM = UM; > 4 years old: NCSM, CM > UM Calissano et al., 2003, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Total IgE Plasmodium falciparum Serum 228 IgE Ab from CM patients recognized the same P. falciparum Ag as IgE Ab from UM patients; patients with IgE Ab to a particul Ag frequently had corresponding IgG4 Ab for the same Ag Perlmann et al., 1994, Clin Exp Immunol
Total IgE Plasmodium falciparum Serum 90 IgE levels ↑ with ↑ age, level of anemia, level of thrombocytopenia and ↓ consciousness in SM patients Seka-Seka et al., 2004, Scand J Immunol
Total IgE Plasmodium falciparum Serum 15 IgE-containing sera induced more TNF release when added to anti-IgE-coated plates (but not anti-IgG-coated plates) together with PBMC compared to control sera, and this was abrogated by IgE-depletion; IgG-anti-IgE-exposed PBMC showed ↑ staining of CD23 after 2-5 days of incubation Perlmann et al., 1997, Infect Immun
Total IgE Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 70 N.I. Perlmann et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Total IgE:sCD23 N.I. Plasma = 50 N.I. Nacher et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
Total IgG Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 25 CM > NM; all CM patients had IgG deposition Maeno et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Total IgG Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = = 98 N.I. Bansal et al., 2009, PLoS One
Total IgG Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 139 N.I. Perlmann et al., 1994, Clin Exp Immunol
Total IgG Plasmodium falciparum Serum 117 CM = non-CM (SM and/or UM?) > HC Brasseur et al., 1990, J Clin Microbiol
Total IgG Plasmodium falciparum Serum 70 NCSM > HC; UM remained ↑ than NCSM until day 28 UM = NCSM Perlmann et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Total IgG Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 125 P. vivax = P. falciparum Jhaveri et al., 1997, Natl Med J India
Total IgG Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale Serum 120 N.I. Adu et al., 1982, Clin Exp Immunol
Total IgM Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 98 Malaria (SM + UM) > HC Bansal et al., 2009, PLoS One
Total IgM Plasmodium falciparum Serum 117 CM < non-CM (SM and/or UM?) > HC Brasseur et al., 1990, J Clin Microbiol
Total IgM Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = = 125 Number of malaria patients with ↑ IgM > number of HC with ↑ IgM Jhaveri et al., 1997, Natl Med J India
Total kininogen Plasmodium vivax Plasma 12 P. vivax < HC Roy et al., 1988, Indian J Malariol
Transferrin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = = = 179 Burté et al., 2013, Blood
Triglycerides Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM > HC; - correlation with plasma lyso-PAF Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Triglycerides Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale Plasma 16 Levels were normalized at follow-up after 2 weeks Nilsson-Ehle et al., 1990, J Intern Med
Trp:ΣNAA (%) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) < HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Tryptophan (Trp) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = = 121-175 CMseq = CMnseq Dobbie et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Tryptophan (Trp) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC; ↑ apparent Km and ↓ (calculated) brain uptake by BBB transporter for malaria group compared with HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Tyr:Phe (%) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) < HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Tyr:ΣNAA (%) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Tyrosine N.I. Plasma = 126 N.I. Lopansri et al., 2006, Infect Immun
Tyrosine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC; ↑ apparent Km and similar (calculated) brain uptake by BBB transporter for malaria group compared with HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
uPAR Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 16 Astrocytes: CM > NM; Endothelial cells: CM = NM-CNS > NM-NCNS; Microglia/MF: CM ≤ NM-CNS; CM > CM-NCNS (in Dürck’s granulomas and adjacent to petechial hemorrhages) Fauser et al., 2000, J Neuroimmunol
uPAR Plasmodium falciparum PBMC 356 Malaria (SM + UM) > convalescent samples; a larger ↑ in the expression of uPAR on monocytes is independently associated with SM Jenkins et al., 2006, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Urea N.I. Plasma = 50 N.I. Oguche et al., 2002, West Afr J Med
Urea Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 306 SM† = SMseq > SMnseq; CM + RD > RD > CM, hyperparasitemia/prostration English et al., 1997, QJM
Urea Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 N.I. Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med

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