Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

SelectField
Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 73 Plasma levels ↓ 30 days post-treatment; + correlation with EPX, TNF and sIL-2R; + correlation with eosinophil count 30 days posttreatment; ↓ eosinophil counts on admission, but ↑ during treatment Kurtzhals et al., 1998, Clin Exp Immunol
Eosinophil protein X (EPX) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 73 + correlation with ECP, TNF and sIL-2R; + correlation with eosinophil count 30 days posttreatment Kurtzhals et al., 1998, Clin Exp Immunol
Epinephrine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 25 N.I. Blümer et al., 2005, Metabolism
Epinephrine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
EPO Plasmodium falciparum CSF 124 CMseq = CMnseq Casals-Pascual et al., 2008, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
EPO Plasmodium falciparum Plasma < 124 CM† < CMseq < CMnseq; protection against neurological sequelae Casals-Pascual et al., 2008, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
EPO Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 211 SMA > CM Diez-Padrisa et al., 2011, PLoS One
EPO Plasmodium falciparum Serum 87 Levels anemic patients > levels non-anemic patients Leowattana et al., 2008, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health
Factor B Plasmodium falciparum Serum = n.s. 283 N.I. Phanuphak et al., 1985, Clin Exp Immunol
Factor II+VII+X Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 61 P. falciparum = P. vivax; no correlation with platelet count; - correlation with sIL-2R and sTNF-R1 Bygbjerg et al., 1997, APMIS
Factor IX Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 54 N.I. Hemmer et al., 1991, Am J Med
Factor V Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 15 SM (renal failure)admission = SM (renal failure)recovery = within normal limits Sitprija et al., 1977, Nephron
Factor VIII Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 15 SM (renal failure)admission = SM (renal failure)recovery = within normal limits Sitprija et al., 1977, Nephron
Factor VIII Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 58 CM = NCSM > HC Larkin et al., 2009 PLoS Pathog
Factor XII Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 32 SM < HC Clemens et al., 1994, Br J Haematol
Factor XIII Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 45 This is true for F.XIII subunit a and b and for F.XIII activity; - correlation with neutrophil elastase and parasitemia Holst et al., 1999, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Ferritin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 679 UM hospitalized > UM not-hospitalized; + correlation with lactate; - correlation with Hb O'Donnell et al., 2009, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Ferritin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma/Serum = = 179 Plasma: CM > UM; serum: CM ns UM; CM > NM; SM/NCSM = NM Burté et al., 2013, Blood
FFA N.I. Plasma 186 SM = NM Kawo et al., 1990, Lancet
FFA Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 25 N.I. Blümer et al., 2005, Metabolism
FFA Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 13 CM = HC Van Thien et al., 2001, QJM
FGF basic protein Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
FGF basic protein Plasmodium falciparum Serum 20 SM on admission < SM day7 > SM day14; SM on admission = HC; + correlation between FGFday7 and AST + ALT (admission) and parasite clearance time Burgmann et al., 1996, J Clin Immunol
FGF basic protein Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
Fibrin Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 16 + correlation with pRBC sequestration Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
Fibrin degradation products (FDP) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 15 SM (renal failure)admission > SM (renal failure)recovery Sitprija et al., 1977, Nephron
Fibrin degradation products (FDP) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 29 Malaria > HC, especially in patients with CM or ↑ parasitemia Sucharit et al., 1975, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health
Fibrin degradation products (FDP) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 35 N.I. Reid et al., 1972, Lancet
Fibrin degradation products (FDP) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 89 CM > NM; - correlation with serum C3 values Greenwood et al., 1974, Clin Exp Immunol
Fibrin degradation products (FDP) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 52 N.I. Pukrittayakamee et al., 1989, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Fibrin degradation products (FDP) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 24 N.I. Jaroonvesama et al., 1972, Lancet
Fibrin degradation products (FDP) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum 166 Malaria (P. falciparum + P. vivax) > HC; fibrinolytic activity P. falciparum > HC (not for P. vivax) Rojanasthien et al., 1992, J Med Assoc Thai
Fibrinogen Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 67 Malaria < HC; - correlation with plasma FPA Jimmy et al., 1995, Cent Afr J Med
Fibrinogen Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 97 Similar thrombin clot time (TCT) between groups; - correlation with TCT Akingbola et al., 2006, Niger Postgrad Med J
Fibrinogen Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 52 N.I. Pukrittayakamee et al., 1989, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Fibrinogen Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 15 SM (renal failure)admission > SM (renal failure)recovery; other coagulation factors were normal (prothrombine time and partial thromboplastin time) Sitprija et al., 1977, Nephron
Fibrinogen Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 54 Abnormal only in 3 patients with extremely ↑ parasitemia, ↓ PC antigen and activity and ↑ TAT plasma concentrations; + correlation with PC (Ag and activity); - correlation with parasitemia and TNF-a Hemmer et al., 1991, Am J Med
Fibrinogen Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = = 50 UM = P. vivax; only ↑ in 2 cases with DIC Jaroonvesama et al., 1975, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health
Fibrinogen leakage Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 24 N.I. Brown et al., 1999, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
Fibrinopeptide A (FPA) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 67 Malaria > HC; - correlation with plasma fibrinogen; + correlation with parasitemia Jimmy et al., 1995, Cent Afr J Med
G-CSF Plasmodium falciparum CSF 84 CM patients: CSF = Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
G-CSF Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
G-CSF Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 209 CM > HC John et al., 2008, Cytokine
G-CSF Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
Glucagon Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 25 CM + UM > HC Blümer et al., 2005, Metabolism
Glucagon Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
Glucose N.I. Blood 186 SM = NM Kawo et al., 1990, Lancet
Glucose N.I. Plasma = 50 N.I. Oguche et al., 2002, West Afr J Med
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Blood 115 - correlation with venous blood lactate concentrations; logistic regression indicated glucose levels < 2.2 mmol/L as an independently predictive of fatal outcome Krishna et al., 1994, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Blood = 118 N.I. Agbenyega et al., 1997, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Blood 68 SM = HC (recoverd from UM) Sasi et al., 2007, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Blood = 56 N.I. Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum CSF 46 No overlap between CM range and range of viral encephalitis; CSF glucose below cut-off value (3.4 mmol/L) is 100% specific for CM Jakka et al., 2006, Cerebrospinal Fluid Res
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum CSF 23 CM patients had similar levels during coma on admission and after recovery from coma Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 400 Hypoglycemia is a good predictor of a fatal outcome; - correlation with NT-proBNP, h-FABP, CK-MB and myoglobin Ehrhardt et al., 2005, Microbes Infect
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 25 Glucose production: CM > UM > HC; + correlation with plasma adiponectin Blümer et al., 2005, Metabolism
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 13 CM > HC; glucose production was ↑ in CM group and was 100% derived from gluconeogenesis Van Thien et al., 2001, QJM
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 24 N.I. Dondorp et al., 1998, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 35 SM = HC Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 Glucose production was ↑ in UM group and was 50% more derived from gluconeogenesis compared to HC Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 306 SM† = SMseq; hyperparasitemia/prostration, CM > RD English et al., 1997, QJM
Glucose Plasmodium falciparum Plasma/Serum = 81 MOD = CM Manish et al., 2003, Trop Med Int Health
Glutamic acid Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Glycerol N.I. Blood 186 SM = NM Kawo et al., 1990, Lancet
Glycerol Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 13 CM = HC Van Thien et al., 2001, QJM
Glycine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Glycine-rich b-glycoprotein (GBG) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 89 N.I. Greenwood et al., 1974, Clin Exp Immunol
GM-CSF Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
GM-CSF Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 179 CM = NM; SM/NCSM > NM; + correlation with serum IL-10, IL-6 and TNF in all patient groups (UM, CM, and SMA) and with IL-1b in UM and SMA patients (but not in CM patients) Burté et al., 2013, Blood
GM-CSF Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
GM-CSF Plasmodium vivax Plasma 99 HC were the same patients 3 weeks after treatment Abeles et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Haptoglobin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 567 SM > UM hospitalized < UM not-hospitalized; + correlation with Hb and glucose; - correlation with Blantyre coma score and bicarbonate O'Donnell et al., 2009, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
HDL-cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 37 NM (febrile children) = HC Agbedana at al., 1990, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
HDL-cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 74 N.I. Djoumessi et al., 1989, Pathol Biol (Paris)
HDL-cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM < HC Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
HDL-cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum 28 P. falciparum = P. vivax; + correlation with plasma lyso-PAF Davis et al., 1993, J Infect
HDL-cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale Plasma 16 Levels were normalized at follow-up after 2 weeks Nilsson-Ehle et al., 1990, J Intern Med
HDL:total cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 37 NM (febrile children) = HC Agbedana at al., 1990, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
HDL:total cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM < HC Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
HDL:total cholesterol Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum 28 P. falciparum = P. vivax Davis et al., 1993, J Infect
Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 400 Elevated H-FABP is a good predictor of a fatal outcome; + correlation with plasma NT-proBNP, myoglobin, CK-MB, impaired consciousness, CM and blood lactate levels; - correlation with glucose levels and Hb Ehrhardt et al., 2005, Microbes Infect
Hepcidin Plasmodium falciparum Plasma/Serum = 179 CM = NM/HC; SMA > NM/HC Burté et al., 2013, Blood
His:ΣNAA (%) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) > HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
Histamine Plasmodium falciparum Blood 43 On admission: SM (+ DIC) > HC, NM; day 3: SM > UM > HC, NM (levels ↑ 3 days after start of treatment and ↓ thereafter) Srichaikul et al., 1976, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Histamine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) > HC Enwonwu et al., 2000, J Neural Transm
Histidine N.I. Plasma = 126 N.I. Lopansri et al., 2006, Infect Immun
Histidine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) > HC; ↑ apparent Km and ↑ (calculated) brain uptake by BBB transporter for malaria group compared with HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
HMGB1 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 103 HMGB1 can discriminate between fatal and non-fatal P. falciparum malaria (ROC analysis); secretion by PBMCs exposed to P. falciparum malaria in vitro Higgins et al., 2013, Malar J
HMGB1 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = = 97 Angeletti et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
HMW-kininogen Plasmodium vivax Plasma 12 P. vivax < HC Roy et al., 1988, Indian J Malariol
HO-1 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 10 Selective expression in areas of bleedings, in Dürck’s granulomas, coexpression with CD68 (MF marker) Schluesener et al., 2001, Acta Neuropathol
Human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 65 + correlation with MPO, lysozyme, parasitemia, body temperature and pulse rate Mohammed et al., 2003, Acta Trop
iC3 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 47 SM < HC; + correlation with C3; - correlation with SC5b-9 and TNF-a Wenisch et al., 1997, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
iC3:C3 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 47 SM > HC; normalized 7 days after start of treatment Wenisch et al., 1997, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
ICAM-1 (CD54) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 24 N.I. Brown et al., 1999, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
ICAM-1 (CD54) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 21 + correlation with sequestration of pRBC; only vascular staining; receptor staining also in vessels without pRBC sequestration → receptor ↑ is result of pRBC binding to a specific EC, and of systemically produced soluble mediators; also pRBC sequestration without receptor expression; receptor staining and pRBC sequestration in cerebellum > receptor staining and pRBC sequestration in cerebrum and brainstem Armah et al., 2005, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
ICAM-1 (CD54) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 18 No staining in brains from patients who died from NM causes Ockenhouse et al., 1992, J Exp Med
ICAM-1 (CD54) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 18 + correlation with sequestration of pRBC; also increased expression in muscle, kidneys and lungs Turner et al., 1994, Am J Pathol
ICAM-1 (CD54) Plasmodium falciparum Endothelial cells (subcutaneous fat tissue) 37 CM > HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
ICAM-1 (CD54) Plasmodium falciparum PBMC 356 Malaria (SM + UM) > convalescent samples; a larger ↑ in the expression of ICAM-1 on monocytes is independently associated with SM Jenkins et al., 2006, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg

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