Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

SelectField
Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
C4 Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = 283 N.I. Phanuphak et al., 1985, Clin Exp Immunol
C4 Plasmodium falciparum Serum/Plasma = 89 N.I. Greenwood et al., 1974, Clin Exp Immunol
C4 Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 125 P. falciparum = P. vivax < HC Jhaveri et al., 1997, Natl Med J India
C4d Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 47 SM > HC; + correlation with C4 and C3 Wenisch et al., 1997, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
C4d:C4 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 47 SM > HC; remained ↑ 7 days after start of treatment Wenisch et al., 1997, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
Calcium Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 268 N.I. Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
Carboxyhemoglobin Plasmodium falciparum Finger pulse co-oximeter measurement 117 + correlation with disease severity and blood lactate levels (SM group); + correlation with parasite biomass (malaria group); - correlation with Hb levels at enrollment ( SM group and malaria group) Yeo et al., 2013, J Infect Dis
CCL11 (Eotaxin) Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CCL11 (Eotaxin) Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CCL2 (MCP-1) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 84 CM patients: CSF > Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
CCL2 (MCP-1) Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CCL2 (MCP-1) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 209 CM > HC John et al., 2008, Cytokine
CCL2 (MCP-1) Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CCL2 (MCP-1) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 255 UM vivax = UM falciparum > HC; P. vivax and P. falciparum: anemic patients = non-anemic patients; patients without parasite-specific IgM, IgG = patients with parasite-specific IgM, IgG: + correlation with parasitemia Fernandes et al., 2006, Clin Vaccine Immunol
CCL3 (MIP-1a) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 84 CM patients: CSF < Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
CCL3 (MIP-1a) Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CCL3 (MIP-1a) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 217 - correlation with platelet count John et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
CCL3 (MIP-1a) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM > HC; MIP-1a ↑ until day 14 posttreatment and ↓ after it; + correlation with serum IL-8 Burgmann et al., 1995, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
CCL3 (MIP-1a) Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CCL4 (MIP-1b) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 84 CM patients: CSF < Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
CCL4 (MIP-1b) Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CCL4 (MIP-1b) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 133 N.I. Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
CCL4 (MIP-1b) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 217 N.I. John et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
CCL4 (MIP-1b) Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CCL5 (RANTES) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM) 18 by RT-PCR and Western blotting Sarfo et al., 2004, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
CCL5 (RANTES) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 84 CM patients: CSF < Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
CCL5 (RANTES) Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CCL5 (RANTES) Plasmodium falciparum Serum < 217 CM < HC; + correlation with platelet count; association with death from CM John et al., 2006, J Infect Dis
CCL5 (RANTES) Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CCR1 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM) = 18 mRNA levels, by RT-PCR Sarfo et al., 2004, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
CCR3 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM) 18 mRNA levels, by RT-PCR; not detected by Western blotting Sarfo et al., 2004, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
CCR5 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM) 18 by RT-PCR and Western blotting Sarfo et al., 2004, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
CCR5 Plasmodium falciparum PBMC 356 Malaria (SM + UM) > convalescent samples Jenkins et al., 2006, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
CD23 (FceRII) Plasmodium falciparum PBMC 356 Malaria (SM + UM) > convalescent samples; a smaller ↑ in the expression of CD23 on monocytes is independently associated with SM Jenkins et al., 2006, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
CD36 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 18 No staining in brains from patients who died from NM causes Ockenhouse et al., 1992, J Exp Med
CD36 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 18 + correlation with sequestration of pRBC; staining low to absent in all brains; strong staining in liver, lung, spleen and muscle (also in NM cases) Turner et al., 1994, Am J Pathol
CD68 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 7 Expression of CD68 (indicator of activation and phagocytic activity) on microglial cells within petechial bleedings and gray matter of CM patients Schluesener et al., 1998, Acta Neuropathol
Cellular DNA strand break (apoptosis) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 7 Many apoptotic cells within the vessel lumen and in glial cells and neurons of CM patients Schluesener et al., 1998, Acta Neuropathol
Chloride Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 N.I. Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
Ciliary neutrophic factor (CNTF) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 CM, RF < NCSM, HC; plasma levels returned to normal 24h after treatment Wenisch et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
Circulating immune complexes (CIC) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma = 125 P. falciparum > P. vivax = HC Jhaveri et al., 1997, Natl Med J India
Class I HLA Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 18 N.I. Turner et al., 1994, Am J Pathol
Cortisol Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 25 + correlation with plasma adiponectin Blümer et al., 2005, Metabolism
Cortisol Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 13 CM > HC Van Thien et al., 2001, QJM
Cortisol Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
Cortisol Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Malaria (UM + CM) > HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
COX-1 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 14 In macrophages/microglial cells (in Dürck’s granulomas) Deininger et al., 2000, J Neuroimmunol
COX-2 Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 14 In astrocytes and endothelial cells Deininger et al., 2000, J Neuroimmunol
creatinin kinase muscle brain (CK-MB) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 400 + correlation with plasma H-FABP, myoglobin, NT-proBNP, CM and impaired consciousness; - correlation with glucose levels and Hb Ehrhardt et al., 2005, Microbes Infect
creatinine N.I. Plasma 50 N.I. Oguche et al., 2002, West Afr J Med
creatinine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 306 SM† = SMseq > SMnseq; CM + RD > RD > CM, hyperparasitemia/prostration English et al., 1997, QJM
creatinine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 146 N.I. Yeo et al., 2008, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
creatinine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 24 N.I. Dondorp et al., 1998, Am J Trop Med Hyg
creatinine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 127 + correlation with ADMA and SDMA Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
creatinine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 + correlation with strong ion gap (representing unmeasured anions) Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
creatinine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 13 CM = HC Van Thien et al., 2001, QJM
creatinine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 16 N.I. Dekker et al., 1997, Am J Physiol
creatinine Plasmodium falciparum Serum 56 N.I. Löwenberg et al., 2010, Thromb Heamost
creatinine Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM > HC Davis et al., 1995, J Infect
creatinine Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum = 28 P. falciparum = P. vivax Davis et al., 1993, J Infect
CRP Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 566 UM hospitalized = UM not-hospitalized; + correlation with Blantyre coma score O'Donnell et al., 2009, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
CRP Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 253 Malaria > HC Hollestelle et al., 2006, Br J Haematol
CRP Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 93 Plasma levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with neopterin, parasite clearance time, parasitemia and duration of symptoms after therapy Kremsner et al., 1996, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
CRP Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 111 N.I. Hermsen et al., 2003, Clin Exp Immunol
CRP Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = = 179 Burté et al., 2013, Blood
CTGF Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM) n.s. 13 Perivascular deposits Deininger et al., 2003, J Neuroimmunol
CXCL10 (IP-10) Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CXCL10 (IP-10) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 80 ROC curve analysis showed that plasma CXCL10 levels independently descriminated between HC and UM, between HC and CM† ,UM and CM† and between CM survivors and CM† Wilson et al., 2011, Dis Markers
CXCL10 (IP-10) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = n.s. 133 CM† > UM; CM(survivors) = UM Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
CXCL10 (IP-10) Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) 19 SMA = NM-NCNS Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CXCL10 (IP-10):PDGFbb Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CXCL10 (IP-10):PDGFbb Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 133 CM† > UM; CM† > HC Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
CXCL10 (IP-10):VEGF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 133 CM† > UM; CM† > HC Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
CXCL11 (I-TAC) Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CXCL11 (I-TAC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 80 N.I. Wilson et al., 2011, Dis Markers
CXCL11 (I-TAC) Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CXCL12(a) (SDF-1) Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CXCL12(a) (SDF-1) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 214 CM > HC; CM, UM, HC = AM; mean % of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CD34+ VEGFR2+ cells or CD34+ CD133+ cells) was ↓ in CM patients compared with patients from the other groups (UM, AM, SMA, HC) Gyan et al., 2009, Am J Trop Med Hyg
CXCL12(a) (SDF-1) Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CXCL4 (PF-4) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 80 ROC curve analysis showed that plasma CXCL4 levels independently descriminated between HC and CM†, between UM and CM† and between CM survivors and CM† Wilson et al., 2011, Dis Markers
CXCL7 (NAP-2) Plasmodium falciparum Platelet-poor plasma 52 Malaria (SM + UM) > HC; levels increased upon start of antimalarial treatment; + correlation with plasma ANG1 and VEGF Brouwers et al., 2012, PLoS One
CXCL8 (IL-8) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 84 CM patients: CSF > Serum John et al., 2008, Am J Trop Med Hyg
CXCL8 (IL-8) Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CXCL8 (IL-8) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 133 N.I. Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
CXCL8 (IL-8) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = = = 748 SM > HC Lyke et al., 2004, Infect Immun
CXCL8 (IL-8) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 209 N.I. John et al., 2008, Cytokine
CXCL8 (IL-8) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 35 SM > HC; IL-8 ↑ until day 14 posttreatment and ↓ after it; + correlation with serum MIP-1a and parasitemia Burgmann et al., 1995, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
CXCL8 (IL-8) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = = = 179 CM = NM; SM/NCSM = NM Burté et al., 2013, Blood
CXCL8 (IL-8) Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
CXCL8 (IL-8) Plasmodium vivax Plasma < (ns) 99 HC were the same patients 3 weeks after treatment; nontransmitters = transmitters Abeles et al., 2013, Am J Trop Med Hyg
CXCL8 (IL-8) mRNA Plasmodium falciparum Blood = 88 SM = HC Lourembam et al., 2013, Cytokine
CXCL9 (MIG) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 80 N.I. Wilson et al., 2011, Dis Markers
Cystatin C Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 400 No association with any symptoms of SM Ehrhardt et al., 2005, Microbes Infect
Dihydrobiopterin (BH2) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 121-175 CMseq = CMnseq Dobbie et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
E-selectin (ELAM-1, CD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 21 + correlation with sequestration of pRBC; only vascular staining; receptor staining also in vessels without pRBC sequestration → receptor upregulation is not solely the result of pRBC binding to a specific EC, but more likely the result of systemically produced soluble mediators; also pRBC sequestration without receptor expression; the only NM patient to show E-selectin staining was the child that died of Salmonella septicaemia (< fatal malaria) ; receptor staining and pRBC sequestration in cerebellum > receptor staining and pRBC sequestration in cerebrum and brainstem Armah et al., 2005, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
E-selectin (ELAM-1, CD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 18 No staining in brains from patients who died from NM causes Ockenhouse et al., 1992, J Exp Med
E-selectin (ELAM-1, CD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 18 + correlation with sequestration of pRBC; no staining in NM patients; also increased expression in muscle, lung, liver, spleen and kidney Turner et al., 1994, Am J Pathol
Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC 10 - correlation with pRBC sequestration Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) Plasmodium falciparum Endothelial cells (subcutaneous fat tissue) 37 CM < HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
Endothelin-1 (Et-1) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 114 SM > HC; after 24h plasma levels of UM patients remained higher that plasma levels from HC patients Dietmann et al., 2008, Malar J

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