Human data


Expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, adhesion molecules, angiogenic and coagulation factors, metabolic molecules, etc. in different organs e.g. serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem (PM) brains, are compared between several patient groups according to severity and complication [e.g. lethal (†) versus non-lethal cerebral malaria (CM), CM versus uncomplicated malaria (UM), severe malaria (SM)/non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) versus UM, UM versus healthy controls (HC)]. Information on the country, transmission level, parasite species, adult versus pediatric patients, patient number, additional clinical or correlation data, references (Refs), and a hyperlink to the original paper in the PubMed database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) is included for each molecule listed in the database.

Dynamic fields: these are the columns that you can select to show in the output table. See also "How to use MalarImDB?" for more information.

Abbreviations: AM, asymptomatic malaria; N.I., not indicated; NM, non-malaria patients; NM-CNS, NM patients with involvement of the central nervous system; NM-NCNS, NM patients without CNS involvement; n.s., not significant; >, higher levels than; <, lower levels than; =, similar levels; ≤, lower or similar levels than; >*, when adjusted for interactions with other complications (multivariate analysis), the association looses it's significance

 

SelectField
Full
Molecular group
Molecule/Cell
Plasmodium strain
Organ
Population
Transmission
Adult/Pediatric
CM† vs CM
SM† vs SM
CM vs NCSM
CM vs NM-CNS
CM vs NM-NCNS
CM vs UM
SM/NCSM vs UM
UM vs NM
UM vs HC
Patient number
Additional differences
Refs
PubMed
Execute an advanced search by using AND or OR between terms
Full Molecule/Cell Plasmodium strain Organ CM† vs CM SM† vs SM CM vs NCSM CM vs NM-CNS CM vs NM-NCNS CM vs UM SM/NCSM vs UM UM vs NM UM vs HC Patient number Additional differences Refs PubMed
Potassium Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 N.I. Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
Prekallikrein Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 32 SM < HC Clemens et al., 1994, Br J Haematol
Prekallikrein Plasmodium vivax Plasma 12 P. vivax < HC Roy et al., 1988, Indian J Malariol
Protein C (PC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 32 SM < HC Clemens et al., 1994, Br J Haematol
Protein C (PC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 38 Levels ↑ during treatment; - correlation with TNF-a, IL-1b and IL-6 Vogetseder et al., 2004, Trop Med Int Health
Protein C (PC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 54 Similar observations for protein C activity; levels ↑ during treatment, but remained lower than normal in 70 % of the SM patients 7 days after treatment; + correlation with protein C activity, protein C inhibitor-1, prothrombin time, fibrinogen and platelet counts; - correlation with TAT, partial thromboplastin time, TNF-a and parasitemia Hemmer et al., 1991, Am J Med
Protein S Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 38 Levels ↑ mildly during treatment Vogetseder et al., 2004, Trop Med Int Health
Prothrombin fragment F1+2 : activated protein C (aPC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = = = = 176 CM = HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
Prothrombin time (PT) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = = = 176 CM > HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
QA:KA Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 281 SM > NM-NCNS; SM† > SM (consequence of impaired renal function); + correlation with hypoglycemia, renal failure, jaundice, shock, anemia and admission plasma creatinine levels Medana et al., 2002, J Infect Dis
QA:KA Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 120 + correlation with parasitemia at admission Medana et al., 2003, J Infect Dis
QA:PA Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 120 N.I. Medana et al., 2003, J Infect Dis
Quinolinic acid (QA) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = 281 SM > NM-NCNS; SM† > SM (consequence of impaired renal function); + correlation with hypoglycemia, renal failure, jaundice, shock, anemia and hyperlactatemia Medana et al., 2002, J Infect Dis
Quinolinic acid (QA) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 121-175 CM† + CMseq > CMnseq Dobbie et al., 2000, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Quinolinic acid (QA) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 120 QA malawian children < QA vietnamese adults; + correlation with death (independent of renal function), history of convulsions, plasma creatinine at admission and fever duration Medana et al., 2003, J Infect Dis
Rheumatoid factor (RF) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 125 Proportion of RF+ patients: SM (P. falciparum) = UM (P. falciparum) = P. vivax > HC Jhaveri et al., 1997, Natl Med J India
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) N.I. Plasma = 50 + correlation with total IgE (CM, NCSM), sCD21 (CM), sCD21/sCD23 ratio (CM, NCSM) and IgE/sCD23 ratio (NCSM); - correlation with sCD23 (NCSM); adjusted RNI concentrations CM > NCSM (logistic regression) Nacher et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Exhaled air = 147 SM < HC; no association with L-arginine; the amount of exhaled NO ↑ after L-arginine infusion Yeo et al., 2007, J Exp Med
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Exhaled air = 146 - correlation with ADMA and HRP2 (UM) Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = = 118 - correlation with parasitemia Agbenyega et al., 1997, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 24 + correlation with plasma creatinine and CSF nitrate levels Dondorp et al., 1998, Am J Trop Med Hyg
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 167 CM, UM < HC < AM Anstey et al., 1996, J Exp Med
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 93 + correlation with parasitemia; - correlation with parasite clearance time and duration of symptoms Kremsner et al., 1996, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. 28 - correlation with duration of coma Cot et al., 1994, J Infect Dis
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 105 Light coma < deep coma; short duration of coma < long duration of coma Agina et al., 1999, J Egypt Soc Parasitol.
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 177 CM, UM < AM; CM† = AM Al-Yaman et al., 1998, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Urine = 24 NOx (not corrected for creatinine): SM† < SM Dondorp et al., 1998, Am J Trop Med Hyg
RNI (NO2-/NO3-, NOx) Plasmodium falciparum Urine = 189 CM, UM < AM, HC; AM = HC Anstey et al., 1996, J Exp Med
RNI: TNF-a Plasmodium falciparum Serum < = 177 CM, UM < AM Al-Yaman et al., 1998, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
S100B (astrocytes) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 36 SM = NM-NCNS; + correlation with convulsions and sGPT/ALT Medana et al., 2005, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
S100B (astrocytes) Plasmodium falciparum CSF n.s. 142 Malaria = NM; + correlation with recurrence of seizures after admission Medana et al., 2007, J Neurol Sci
SC5b-9 (MAC) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 47 SM > HC; + correlation with TNF-a and Bb; - correlation with C3 and iC3b Wenisch et al., 1997, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
sCD14 Plasmodium falciparum Serum 83 Patients with renal failure > patients without renal failure; SM, NM > HC; plasma levels ↓ after treatment; + correlation with IL-6 and TNF-a Wenisch et al., 1996, Clin Exp Immunol
sCD21 N.I. Plasma = 50 N.I. Nacher et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
sCD21:sCD23 N.I. Plasma 50 ↑ sCD21/sCD23 ratio was associated with protection from CM (logistic regression) Nacher et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
sCD23 N.I. Plasma 50 N.I. Nacher et al., 2002, Parasite Immunol
sCD4 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 37 N.I. Elhassan et al., 1994, Am J Trop Med Hyg
sCD8 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 97 N.I. Jakobsen et al., 1994, Clin Exp Immunol
sCD8 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 41 N.I. Elhassan et al., 1994, Am J Trop Med Hyg
sCD8 Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 48 Patients with ≤ 2 previous malaria attacks = patients with > 3 malaria attacks in the previous 2 year; levels ↓ after treatment Kremsner et al., 1989, J Infect Dis
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum CSF = = 71 Only significantly increased in the tubercular meningitis group Brown et al., 2000, Neurology
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 212 + correlation with TNF-a Tchinda et al., 2007, Acta Trop
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 58 SM > NM; + correlation with sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 Jakobsen et al., 1994, Immunology
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma >* 48 N.I. Deloron et al., 1994, Clin Infect Dis
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 9 + correlation with sIL-2R Hviid et al., 1993, Immunol Lett
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 41 N.I. Elhassan et al., 1994, Am J Trop Med Hyg
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 147 N.I. Yeo et al., 2007, J Exp Med
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 127 N.I. Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 86 SM > HC; SM = sepsis; sepsis > UM, HC; + correlation with E-selectin staining (IHC) on dermal microvasculature Turner et al., 1998, Am J Pathol
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 555 Before episode < during episode > after episode Mita-Mendoza et al., 2013, PLoS One
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 54 Levels returned to normal 3 days posttreatment; + correlation with parasitemia, sICAM-1 and TNFR1 Wenisch et al., 1994, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
sE-selectin (sELAM-1, sCD62E) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum = 43 UM P.falciparum = UM P.vivax; + correlation with sVCAM-1 and borderline correlation with sICAM-1 Jakobsen et al., 1994, Immunology
sEndothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 33 CM > NM Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
sEndothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 CM < NM , CM = HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
sEng (sCD105, sTGF-bRIII) Plasmodium falciparum Serum = = = 126 - correlation with Blantyre coma score; + correlation with simplified multiorgan dysfunction score and plasma levels of sEng; plasma levels of sEng ↓ after ultracentrifugation Dietmann et al., 2009. J Infect Dis
Serine Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 Malaria (UM + CM) = HC Enwonwu et al., 1999, QJM
sFas Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
sFas Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 133 N.I. Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
sFas Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
sFas:PDGFbb Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 133 CM† > UM; CM† > HC Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
sFas:VEGF Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 133 CM† > UM; CM† > HC Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
sFasL Plasmodium falciparum CSF (PM) = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
sFasL Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 133 N.I. Jain et al., 2008, Malar J
sFasL Plasmodium falciparum Serum (PM) = = 19 N.I. Armah et al., 2007, Malar J
sGranzyme A Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 111 SM > HC; + correlation with sGranzyme B Hermsen et al., 2003, Clin Exp Immunol
sGranzyme B Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 111 SM > HC; % of patients with ↑ sGranzyme B increased with disease severity; + correlation with sGranzyme A Hermsen et al., 2003, Clin Exp Immunol
Sialoadhesin (SA) Plasmodium falciparum Brain (PM)-IHC = 24 N.I. Brown et al., 1999, Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 33 CM > NM Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum CSF 71 CSF:plasma ratio of sICAM-1 is similar to the CSF:plasma ratio of albumin → sICAM-1 present in the CSF is the result of the normal exchange across the BBB and not due to production within the CNS or leakage across a damaged BBB Brown et al., 2000, Neurology
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 50 CM = NM > HC Moxon et al., 2013, Blood
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 212 + correlation with TNF-a Tchinda et al., 2007, Acta Trop
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 48 N.I. Deloron et al., 1994, Clin Infect Dis
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = = 402 Malaria (CM + UM) > NM; + correlation with IL-1a, TNF-a and IFN-g; multiple linear regression analysis determined IL-1a and TNF-a but not IFN-g as significant predictors of plasma sICAM-1 levels McGuire et al., 1996, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 87 SM > NM; + correlation with sIL-2R, sE-selectin and sVCAM-1 (borderline p = 0.05) Jakobsen et al., 1994, Immunology
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 9 + correlation with sE-selectin and sIL-2R; - correlation with CD3+LFA-1hi cells Hviid et al., 1993, Immunol Lett
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 40 N.I. Elhassan et al., 1994, Am J Trop Med Hyg
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 38 CM > NCSM, UM (only 2 CM patients in the group) Vogetseder et al., 2004, Trop Med Int Health
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 147 N.I. Yeo et al., 2007, J Exp Med
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 127 + correlation with ADMA Yeo et al., 2010, PLoS Pathog
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 86 SM > HC; SM > sepsis; sepsis = UM; no correlation with ICAM-1 staining (IHC) on dermal microvasculature, as it is constitutively expressed in dermis Turner et al., 1998, Am J Pathol
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 76 CM > NM, HC Brown et al., 2000, Neurology
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 555 Before episode < during episode > after episode; + correlation with uric acid in UM Mita-Mendoza et al., 2013, PLoS One
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 54 Levels ↓ 7 days posttreatment but remained ↑ than HC; + correlation with fever clearance time, sELAM-1 and sTNFR1 Wenisch et al., 1994, Clin Immunol Immunopathol
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 53 P. falciparum (UM + 3SM) > HC; P. vivax > HC De Mast et al., 2009, Am J Trop Med Hyg
sICAM-1 (sCD54) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum = 38 UM P.falciparum = UM P.vivax; borderline correlation with sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin Jakobsen et al., 1994, Immunology
SIG (strong ion gap → un-measured anions) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 268 + correlation with plasma creatinine, bilirubin and inorganic phosphate Dondorp et al., 2004, Crit Care Med
sIL-2R (CD25) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 97 Plasma levels remained ↑ 7days after treatment; + correlation with LT; - correlation with IL-4 Jakobsen et al., 1994, Clin Exp Immunol
sIL-2R (CD25) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 41 + correlation with parasitemia; 3 days after treatment: levels ↓ in survivors but not in patients who died with SM† > SM and were + correlated with age Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
sIL-2R (CD25) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 39 N.I. Elhassan et al., 1994, Am J Trop Med Hyg
sIL-2R (CD25) Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 16 None of 5 tested donors showed an ↑ in CD25 expression on T cells Hviid et al., 1991, FEMS Microbiol Immunol
sIL-2R (CD25) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 116 UM > AM = HC Congo > HC USA; UM children > UM adults Nguyen-Dinh et al., 1988, J Infect Dis
sIL-2R (CD25) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 27 NM, malaria > HC; levels ↓ during treatment; + correlation with IL-1ra; - correlation with factor II+VII+X Bygbjerg et al., 1997, APMIS
sIL-2R (CD25) Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Serum 95 UM P.falciparum = UM P.vivax; clinical P.falciparum > asymptomatic P.falciparum Deloron et al., 1989, J Clin Microbiol
sIL-4R Plasmodium falciparum Plasma 29 N.I. Perkmann et al., 2005, Cytokine
sIL-4R Plasmodium falciparum Plasma n.s. 97 N.I. Jakobsen et al., 1994, Clin Exp Immunol
sIL-6R Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 41 N.I. Sarthou et al., 1997, Infect Immun
sIL-6R Plasmodium falciparum Plasma = 48 SM > HC; plasma levels ↑ during treatment; + correlation with parasite clearance time Wenisch et al., 1999, J Infect Dis
sIL-6R Plasmodium falciparum Serum = 76 N.I. Jakobsen et al., 1994, Infect Immun
sIL-6R Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax Plasma 48 NM, malaria > HC; levels ↑ 3 days after start of treatment Bygbjerg et al., 1997, APMIS
sL-selectin (sCD62L) Plasmodium falciparum Serum 64 Malaria > HC; levels ↓ during treatment Wenisch et al., 1995, J Infect Dis

Pages

CSV